Jeksenbi, 2 Sәuir 2023
Bilgenge marjan 2997 2 pikir 16 Qarasha, 2022 saghat 23:08

Auyl sharuashylyghy eng jaqsy damyghan 10 el

Qay memleketterde auyl sharuashylyghy óndirisi eng jaqsy damyghan sala bolyp sanalady? Maqalada sol elderge saraptama jasap kórdik.

Japoniya, 10-shy oryn

Auyl sharuashylyghy Japoniya ekonomikasyndaghy manyzdy salanyng biri. Onyng JIÓ-degi ýlesi shamamen 2,0 % qúraydy. Auyl sharuashylyghynda 4,1 million adam júmys isteydi (barlyq júmyspen qamtylghandardyng 6,6 % qúraydy).

Sharua qojalyqtarynyng ergejeyli týri basym bolyp keledi. Keyde uchaske kólemi 0,5 gektardan az bolady. Japoniya azyq-týlikting 70 %-yn ózi shygharady, onyng ishinde kýrishke degen súranysty tolyq aqtap otyr. Mal sharuashylyghy asa damymaghan. Jerding azdyghy jayylymdyq jәne mal azyqtyq daqyldardy eguge mýmkindik bermeydi. Sondyqtan januarlardy syrttan әkelinetin jemmen, negizinen jýgerimen qorektendiredi.

Halyqty azyq-týlikpen qamtamasyz etude balyq aulau manyzdy ról atqarady. Japondyqtar tagham qúramyndaghy januarlar aquyzynyng 40 %-yn teniz ónimderinen alady. Balyq aulaudan basqa, asshayan, omar, patsha shayan, balyqtyng ondaghan týrin qoldan ósiredi.

Argentina, 9-oryn

Azyq-týlik óndirisi dәstýrli týrde ekonomikanyng negizgi salalarynyng biri bolyp tabylady (JIÓ-ning 8-9 %). Argentina azyq-týlik qajettilikterin, әsirese astyq jәne mayly daqyldarmen eldi tolyqtay ózi qamtamasyz etedi jәne eksportqa shygharady.

El soya óndiru jәne eksporttau boyynsha Ontýstik Amerikada ekinshi, әlemde ýshinshi oryndy alady. Óndiriletin soyanyng 100% transgendi soya. Eldegi auyl sharuashylyghy jerleri 138 mln ga, onyng ¼ bóligin egin, ¾ bóligin shabyndyqtar men jayylymdar alyp jatyr.

Mal sharuashylyghy joghary dәrejede damyghan, әsirese iri qara mal ósiru.  Argentinadan shyqqan et pen sýt kóptegen elderge eksporttalady. Kókónis pen jemis-jiydek eksporttyng 3 payyzyn qúraydy. Múnda sitrus jemisteri, zәitýn ósiriledi. Argentina - Latyn Amerikasynda birinshi, al әlemde tórtinshi oryndaghy sharap óndirushi el bolyp tabylady.

Týrkiya, 8-oryn

El halqynyng 57 payyzy auyl sharuashylyghynda júmys isteydi. Búl elding jalpy ishki ónimining tórtten bir bóligin qúraydy. Eksporttalatyn auyl sharuashylyghy ónimderining ýlesi 60 payyzgha jetedi. Týrkiyanyng auyl sharuashylyghyndaghy jetekshi oryndy ósimdik sharuashylyghy alady. Ol shamamen 58 % -dy qúraydy. Mal sharuashylyghy 30 %-dy, zyghyr óndirisi 6 %-dy qúraydy.

Týrkiyanyn 24,9 mln. ga eginshilikke arnalghan. Egis alqabynyng 85 %-yn dәndi daqyldar alyp jatyr. Týrkiya biday óndiru boyynsha ýzdik alty elding qataryna kiredi. 9 million gektar jerge biday egiledi.

Pәkistan, 7-oryn

Pәkistan auylsharuashylyq ónimderimen eldi tolyq qamtamasyz etedi әri syrtqy saudagha shygharady. El kýrish, maqta, balyq, jemister (әsirese apelisin men mango) jәne kókónisterdi eksportqa shygharady. Pәkistan - Aziyadaghy órik jәne may naryghynda - ekinshi, maqta, piyaz, sýt naryghynda  - ýshinshi orynda túr.

Mal sharuashylyghy Pәkistannyng jalpy ishki ónimining 11 % qúraydy.

Pәkistanda 24,2 mln iri qara mal, 26,3 mln buyvol, 24,9 mln qoy, 56,7 mln ​​eshki jәne 0,8 mln týie bar. Sonymen qatar, elde qús sharuashylyghy belsendi damyp keledi. Jyl sayyn 530 millionnan astam qús ósiriledi.

Niygeriya, 6-oryn

Auyl sharuashylyghynda halyqtyng 65 payyzy júmys isteydi. Negizgi azyq-týlik daqyldary: yams, tәtti kartop jәne jýgeri. Sonday-aq kakao búrshaqtary (340 mln t), tabighy kauchuk (112 mln t) jәne maqta (0,4 mln t) ósiriledi. Jerding 31,29 payyzy óndeledi.

Negizgi eksporttyq daqyldar – kakao búrshaqtary, jerjanghaq, soya, kauchuk, palima mayy, qant qamysy jәne maqta.

Niygeriyalyq kakaogha túraqty súranys sebebi - (el óndiru boyynsha әlemde 4-shi orynda) onyng dәmdiligi. Sharuashylyqtyng kópshiligi kakao búrshaqtaryn ósiruge baghyttalghan; kakaonyng әlemdik baghasynyng tómendeui әdette auyl túrghyndarynyng tabysynyng kýrt tómendeuine jәne kedeylenuine әkep soghady.

Múnda ananas, banan, búrshaq daqyldary, kartop, maniok, jýgeri, mango, papayya, tary, kýrish, qúmay, temeki, qyzanaq, sitrus jemisteri men yamm da ósiriledi.

Niygeriyada mal sharuashylyghy damyghan, biraq elding kóp bóliginde sese shybyny ómir sýredi, sondyqtan týie, eshki, jylqy, qoy, esek jәne shoshqa ósiru negizinen soltýstik shtattarda qolgha alynghan.

Qús sharuashylyghy da damyp keledi. Gviyneya shyghanaghynyng sularynda, ózenderde jәne Chad aralynda balyq aulanady. Jylyna shamamen 250 myng tonna balyq pen teniz jәndikteri aulanady.

Braziliya, 5-oryn

Braziliya әlemdik naryqqa jer sharyndaghy barlyq auylsharuashylyq ónimderining shamamen 6%-yn shygharady. Braziliya eng aldymen kofe, soya, jýgeri, qant qamysy, kakao jәne banandy eksporttaydy.

Braziliya jyl sayyn kem degende 600 million tonna qant qamysyn jinaydy. Dәndi daqyldardyng ishinde eng kóp taraghany - jýgeri.

Braziliyada jayylymdyq mal sharuashylyghy jaqsy damyghan , iri qaranyng jalpy sany 170 mln basqa jetedi. Shoshqa sharuashylyghy (30 mln shoshqa), qoy sharuashylyghy (20 mln qoy), balyq sharuashylyghy jәne t.b. damyghan. Braziliya auylsharuashylyq ónimderin eksporttau boyynsha AQSh pen Izrailiden keyingi ýshinshi orynda túr.

Elding jetekshi auylsharuashylyq daqyly - kofe, ony óndiru jәne eksporttau boyynsha әlemde birinshi oryndy alady. Kofe óndirisinde 3,5 million adam júmys isteydi. 6 milliardtan astam kofe aghashtary ósedi (74 % Arabica jәne 26 % Robusta).

Izraili, 4-oryn

Izraili ónerkәsiptik auyl sharuashylyghyn damytugha barynsha mәn berip otyr. Auyl sharuashylyghynyng negizgi salalary: sitrustyq jemister, kókónister, maqta ósiru, et,sýt óndirisi.

Izraili jana pisken kókónister men gýlderding negizgi eksporttaushysyna jәne auyl sharuashylyghy tehnologiyasy boyynsha әlemdik kóshbasshygha ainalyp otyr.

Izraili tek astyq, mayly daqyldar, et, kofe, kakao jәne qantty importtay otyryp, ózining azyq-týlikke degen qajettiligining 95 %-yn qamtamasyz etedi. Óndirilgen ónimning 15 payyzy eksportqa arnalghan.

Búl ónimder Europanyn, Amerikanyng jәne Qiyr Shyghystyng naryghyna shygharylady. Agrarlyq sektor ghylymmen tyghyz baylanysty boluymen erekshelenedi. Songhy jyldary shiyeden sәl ýlkenirek shie jemisi ósirildi, ortasha salmaghy shamamen 500 gramm bolatyn porsiyalyq qarbyzdar da shygharylady.

AQSh, 3-oryn

Egistik jerler, shabyndyqtar, jayylymdar Amerika Qúrama Shtattarynyng jartysyna juyghyn alyp jatyr. Auyl sharuashylyghynan týsken jiyntyq tabys 290 mlrd. dollordy qúraydy. Búl salada el halqynyng 3 payyzy ghana júmys isteydi. Respublika boyynsha sharua qojalyqtarynyng ortasha kólemi 50 gektargha juyq jerdi alyp jatyr.

AQSh-tyn agrarlyq keshenining kóshbasshysy - ósimdik sharuashylyghy. Barlyq alqaptardyng 2/3 bóligin dәndi daqyldar alyp jatyr. Jalpy astyq jinau boyynsha AQSh әlemde Qytay men Ýndistannan keyin ýshinshi orynda túr, biraq jýgeri men soyada birinshi oryndy alady.

Negizgi dәndi daqyl – biday, astyq týsimi 90 mln tonnadan asady. Amerika Qúrama Shtattarynyng últtyq daqyly - jýgeri, onyng ónimi әlemde elderining jartysyna taralghan.

Ýndistan, 2-oryn

Auyl sharuashylyghynan týsetin jalpy tabys 4 134 milliard dollardy qúraydy, onda el halqynyng jartysynan astamy júmys isteydi. Diqandar negizinen kýrish, biday ósiredi.

Búrshaq daqyldary, olardyng ishinde noqat eng keng taraghan daqyl. Ol kóptegen ýnditer ýshin aquyzdyng negizgi kózi bolyp tabylady, óitkeni múnda januarlardan alynatyn ónimderdi tútynu kóbine diny túrghydan tyiym salynghan.

Qant, jerjanghaq, kokos, qysha, maqta túqymy men raps, temeki men shay egiledi. Ýndiler etti az jeytinine qaramastan, mal sharuashylyghy agrarlyq ekonomikada manyzdy ról atqarady. Ýndistan dýnie jýzindegi eng kóp siyry bar el.

Qytay, 1-oryn

Elding auyl sharuashylyghynan týsetin jalpy tabys 1 trln. 88 milliard dollardy qúraydy. Qytayda 95 million gektar egistik jer bar. Kóbinese bir egistik alqaptan eki jylda ýsh nemese odan da kóp ret ónim alynady. Ontýstik Qytaydyng keybir bólikterinde negizgi daqyldar jylyna ýsh ret, kókónister bes ret jinalady. Qytaydyng auyl sharuashylyghy onyng keng aumaghy men әrtýrli klimattyq jaghdaylaryna baylanysty qalyptasty.

Qytayda 500 million tonnagha juyq astyq, onyng ishinde 185 million tonna kýrish óndiriledi. Biday – ekinshi manyzdy azyq-týlik daqylyna jatady. Al jýgeri jinau boyynsha (jylyna 100 mln tonnadan astam) әlemde AQSh-tan keyingi ekinshi orynda túr. Qytay shaydyng әrtýrli sorttaryn shygharatyn әlemdegi eng iri jetkizushilerding biri.

Sonymen qatar, múnda tary, súly, gaolyan, qara biday, qaraqúmyq, tamyrjemisti daqyldardan: batat, kartop, búrshaq túqymdastardan: soya ósiriledi. Tehnikalyq daqyldardyng ishinde maqta manyzdy oryn alady. Sonymen qatar, zyghyr, kendir jәne djut ósiriledi.

Mayly daqyldar arasynda kýnjit, jerjanghaq jәne kýnbaghys kósh bastap túr. Qant qyzylshasy men qant qamysy ósiriledi. Jemis aghashtarynan ananas, sitrus jemisteri, banan, alma, mango, almúrt jәne t.b. ósiriledi. Sonday-aq Qytay 4 000 jyldan beri jibek sharuashylyghymen ainalysyp keledi.

 

Kerimsal Júbatqanov 

Abai.kz

2 pikir

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