Seysenbi, 29 Qarasha 2022
Alang 2679 0 pikir 1 Tamyz, 2022 saghat 13:32

Balqannyng basynan baq taya ma?

Álemning nazary taghy da Europada. Búl joly Ukraina emes, Kosovo men Serbiyada. Serbiya men jartylay moyyndalghan Kosovo arasynda qaruly qaqtyghys boluy yqtimal. Balqan aimaghy taghy da ot qúshaghy, janjal alanyna ainaludyng aldynda túr. 

Teketiresting tarihyn qarastyryp, terennen bastasaq. Serbiyanyng zannamasyna sýienetin bolsaq, Kosovo aimaghy Serbiyanyng qúramynda jәne onyng kez kelgen әreketin serb biyligi separatizm dep qarastyrady. Alayda resmy solay bolsa da, beyresmy Kosovo men Metohiya Serbiya biyligine baghynbaydy. Óz basshysy, әskeri men arnayy jasaghy bar. 2008 jyly tәuelsizdigin de jariyalap, ony BÚÚ-gha mýshe jýzge juyq memleket moyyndap ta ýlgerdi. Moyyndaghandardyng ishinde Qazaqstan joq. Ol jayly tipti preziydent Toqaev Peterburgte ótken ekonomikalyq forumda da aitty.

Kosovoda basym bóligi albandar túrady. Olar 2 mlngha juyq halyqtyng 90 payyzyna juyghyn qúraydy. Ekinshi kóp halyq serbter. Olardyng sany 5 payyzgha juyq, al key derek boyynsha shamamen 50-100 myng arasynda delinedi.

Alban halqy Kosovo aimaghynda ejelden túrady. Ekinshi jahan soghysynan keyin aimaqtaghy jaghday birshama túraqtalghanday boldy jәne Yugoslaviya basshysy bolghan Broz Tito albandyqtardy qudalaugha tyiym saldy. 1945 jyly Kosovo aimaghy Yugoslaviya federativtik halyqtyq respublikasynyng zanyna sәikes Serbiya qúramyndaghy avtonomiyalyq oblys degen statusqa ie boldy. Al 1974 jyly qabyldanghan Yugoslavinyayng jana konstitusiyasynda aimaqtargha bólinip shyghu qúqyghy joq respublika statusyn beruge rúqsat etildi. Sol sәtte Kosovo sosialistik avtonomiyalyq aimaq retinde ózining zanyn, joghary biylik organdaryn qalyptastyra aldy.

80-jyldardyng sonynda әlemde kóptegen elder sayasy krizisterdi bastan ótkerdi. KSROda ekonomikalyq jaghday nasharlap, ishki tolqular artty. Etnikalyq qaqtyghystar úlghaydy, artynsha KSRO qúramyndaghy memleketter tәuelsizdikke úmtylatynyn kórsetti. Alghash bolyp Baltyq elderi mәlimdey bastady. Búl prosesster Yugoslaviyany da ainalyp ótpedi. Qúramyndaghy avtonomdyq respublikalardan aiyrylyp qalu qaupining baryn sezgen elder Konstitusiyasyn jedel ózgerte bastady. Sonyng biri Serbiya bolatyn. Serbiya 1990 jyly 28-qyrkýiekte jana zang qabyldap, Kosovony tek qana mәdeny avtonomiya etti.

Kosovo búl Konstitusiyany qabyldamady. Olar Serbiyany zang ýstemdigin ornatuyna qarsy bolyp, ózderining biylik organdaryn qayta qúra bastady. 1991 jyly alghash ret Kosovoda Serbiya taraby zansyz dep tapqan referendum ótti. Sóitip Kosovo birinshi mәrte tәuelsizdigin jariyalady, alayda ol respublikany sol sәtte eshkim moyyndamady. Keyin Kosovo últshyldary "Kosovony azat etu" әskerin qúrdy.

1998 jyly serbter men albandar arasynda qaqtyghys ushyqty. Búl Yugoslaviyanyng soghysqa alanyna ainalyp, ydyrap jatqan sәti bolatyn. Kosovo aimaghynda serb әserleri adamzatqa jasalghan qylmys dep tanylghan әreketterge bardy. Etnikalyq sipattaghy qatygezdik әreketter artty, tútas auyldardy qyru faktileri tirkeldi.

NATO Kosovo qaqtyghysyna aralasu turaly sheshim qabyldap,1999 jyly 24 nauryzda "Odaqtastyq kýshi" atty operasiyany bastady. Yugoslaviyanyng әskery nysandary men qalalaryn bombalady. Serbtar men albandar arasyndaghy janjalgha baylanysty Europada bosqyndar legi artty.

NATO әskerinen jenilis tapqan serb ýkimeti Kosovogha KFOR bitimgerlik kýshterin kirgizudi qoldady. Osylaysha soghysqa bitimgerler kirisip, janjal toqtatady. Uaqytsha toqtady...

2004 jyly, 17-nauryzda Kosovoda serbter men albandar qaqtyghysyp, ondaghan adam qaza tapty. Kosovoda tәuelsizdik jariyalau turaly bastamalar qayta ýdey týsti. 2006 jyly Serbiyada jana konstitusiya referendum arqyly qabyldanyp, onda "Kosovo Serbiyanyng bólinbes bólshegi" retinde kórsetildi.

Alayda Kosovo 2008 jyly óz konstitusiyasyn bekitip, tәuelsizdik jariyalady. Ony Batys elderining kópshiligi moyyndady. Al Resey qarsy bolyp, Serbiya qúqyghy eskerilui tiyis dep sanaydy. Serbiya men Resey arasynda әskery qatynas artty. Serbiya Kosovony qaytarudyng bir joly reseylik kýshke sýienu dep baghamdaydy, sol sebepti de Reseyding Ukrainadaghy soghysyna "týsinistikpen" qarap, Lugansk pen Donesk býlikshilerine qatysty sheshimin aiyptamady. Europa elderining sanksiyasyna da qosylmady.

Kosovo Serbiyadan birjola bólinudi qalaydy. Óz aimaghynda serb biyligine tiyesili nyshandardan qútylu ýstinde. Kosovo biyligi 1-tamyzdan bastap serbtik qújattar Kosovo aimaghynda jaramsyz ekenin, serbtik avtokólik nómirleri tәrkilenetinin aitty. Ony Serbiya Kosovo aimaghyndaghy serbterdi qudalaudyng bir joly dep dabyl qaqty. Osylaysha Serbiya men Kosovo arasy qayta ushyghyp, taraptar shekara manyna әsker toptastyrdy, tipti kishigirim atys-shabys ta boldy. Iske NATO aralasyp, AQSh Kosovo biyligine sheshimdi 1-qyrkýiekke deyin shegerudi súrady. Kosovo AQSh úsynysyn qabyl aldy.

Resey biyligi bolsa Serbiyany jaqtap, "AQSh pen Europa elderi arandatudy qoyyndar" dep mәlimdedi. Balqan týbegi tynyshtaldy dep aitu qiyn. Jaghday ushyqqan kýide túr. Búl tek qana Kosovo men Serbiya qaqtyghysy emes, ózge de iri oiynshylardyng qaqtyghys alanyna ainaluy mýmkin. Kosovony Albaniya (NATO qúramynda) jәne Týrkiya (NATOda) qoldaydy. Olar etnikalyq jәne diny sipatta, sonymen qatar Serbiyagha qarsylyq retinde kosovolyqtardy qoldap keledi. Al Serbiyany Resey qoldaugha әzir. Qaqtyghys ushyqsa, dini-etnikalyq sipatqa auysuy mýmkin.

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