Seysenbi, 19 Qazan 2021
Endi qayttik?.. 4531 17 pikir 8 Qyrkýiek, 2021 saghat 13:46

AES-ke aparar jol: IYdeya qaydan shyqty?

Qazaqstanda AES salu mәselesi qayta qyzu talqylanyp, basty taqyryptyng birine ainaldy. Oghan preziydentting Joldaudaghy sózi men Reseyde ótken «Shyghys ekonomikalyq forumynda» aitqan pikiri sebepker boluda. Preziydent Qazaqstangha AES qajettiligin qadap aitty. Qazaqstanda AES salu taqyryby býgin kóterilip túrghan joq, onyng tarihy men bastauy terende. 

1948 jyly KSRO-da alghashqy AES salyndy. Jalpy búl әlemdegi alghashqy atom stansiyasy bolatyn. Atalmysh joba arqyly KSRO atom salasynda kóshbasshy atanu maqsatynda týrli qúpiya jәne jariya baghdarlamalardy iske asyra bastady.

1966 jyly Aqtau qalasynyng manyna elimizdegi alghashqy AES qúrylysy bastaldy. Ol BN-350 reaktorlyq jobasy retinde bastalyp, 1973 jyly 16-shildede qoldanugha berildi. Reaktor 1999 jylgha deyin qyzmet etti. AES-ting jabyluyna AQSh-tyng jylytu jýielerine qarjy bólui men reaktordyng óz qyzmetin tolyq atqaryp, sarqyluy әser etti. Alayda Aqtau AES-inde «qarugha arnalghan plutoniy óndiru qabileti bolghan, sondyqtan da jabyluy mýmkin» degen aqparatty da aitushylar bar.

Qazaqstanda AES salu iydeyasy sonau 90-jyldary tuyndady. Kenes imperiyasynyng shengelinen shyqqan Qazaqstan ýshin onday jobagha qarjy salu mýmkin emes edi. Alayda soghan qaramastan AES saludy algha jyljytqysy kelgender sany azaymady. 1997 jyly jana AES salu qajettiligi turaly iydeyany Bilim jәne ghylym ministri bolghan Vladimir Shkolinik aitqan bolatyn. Ol AES-ting qajettiligin búrynghy AES-ting merzimi ótuimen týsindirdi. AES-ti salu ornyn Batys nemese Balqash manynda degen boljamdar aityldy.

1997 jyly mamandar Reseylik konstruktorlar jasaghan reaktorlarmen Balqash AES qúrylysynyng tehnikalyq-ekonomikalyq negizdemesin jasap shyqty. Bir jyldan keyin Ýkimet atom stansiyasyn salu turaly mәlimdedi: AES-tyng birinshi qondyrghysy 2005 jyly iske qosylady dep josparlanghan bolatyn. Al tútastay AES 2015 jyly qoldanysqa berilui tiyis edi. Dey-túra Kenes biyligining qúityrqy sayasatynan qynaday qyrylghan qazaq halqy AES salu iydeyasyna qarsy shyqty. Ondaghan jyldar boyy Semey poligonynyng zardabyn shegip, radiasiyanyng súmdyghyn kórgen halyq búl bastamany qoldamady. Qoldausyz qalghan bastama úzaq uaqytqa aitylmay, taqyryptar ayasynan týsip qaldy.

Artynsha AES salu taqyryby qayta kýn tәrtibine oraldy. 2006 jyly mamandar Manghystau atom energokombinatynyng ornyna AES salsaq qaytedi dedi. Búl úsynysty estigen Resey biyligi birden óz «kómegin» úsynyp: «Biz jana reaktor ornatsaq, búl shyghyny az joba bolar edi», - dep mәlimdedi. Biylik tehnikalyq smetasyn jasap, Ýkimet ony qarastyryp jatty. Tipti, Energetika jәne miyneraldy resurstar ministrligi 2009 jyly AES saludy bastap, 2020-da ayaqtaymyz degendey boldy. Alayda, Aqtau halqy búl bastamagha qarsy shyghyp, aksiyalar úiymdastyrdy. Qarsylyq aksiyalary «Aqtau AES-ke qarsy», «AES salynbasyn» degen úranmen ótti. Sondyqtan, búl bastama jergilikti halyq tarapynan esh qoldau tappady.

2011 jyly Qazaqstan men Resey beybit atomdy qoldanu turaly memorandumgha qol qoydy. «Qazatomprom» basshysy bolghan Vladimir Shkoliniyk: «Qazaqstanda jarylmaytyn stansiya salynady», - dep mәlimdedi. Ol mәlimdemesi Japoniyadaghy AES apatyna baylanysty aitylghan bolatyn. Dәl AES salu iydeyasyn 1997 jyly osy Vladimir Shkolinik algha tartqanyn aitqan edik.

Kazahstan ne prinyal resheniya po stroiytelistvu AES – Minenergo | Inbusiness

2013 jyly AES salu boyynsha úsynysty preziydent N.Nazarbaev naqty iske asyru sharalaryna kóshuge shaqyrghan bolatyn.

«Vladimir Sergeevich, talqylaudan iske kósheyik. Biz ony qay jerde, ortalyqta nemese Aqtauda salu kerektigin daulasyp jatyrmyz. Olar maghan AES salu gazdy jaghu, tútynudan әldeqayda tiyimdi ekenin aityp jatyr. Gazdy jaghu búl 350 dollardan bastalady deydi. Búl ýshin de emes, tipti. Bizde әr týrli sebepterge baylanysty Qazaqstanda AES boluy kerek. Biz búl turaly qazir sóilespeymiz, qazir jasaugha tiyispiz, bastayyq. Salatyn jerin anyqtap, kimmen júmys isteytinimizdi bileyik. Búl qúrylys úzaq jyldargha sozylady. Bolashaqta biz osyny eskeruimiz kerek. Sizden maghan jyldyng birinshi jartysynda úsynystar beruinizdi súraymyn», - degen edi Nazarbaev.

Keyinnen AES salugha ynghayly dep birneshe jer tandaldy. Elimizding batysy, Balqash many men Kurchatov aimaghy. Sarapshylar eng tiyimdi dep Balqash manyndaghy, Ýlken eldi-mekenin atap ótti. AES qúny shamamen 3 mlrd dollar boluy mýmkin degen boljamdar aityldy. Alayda AES salu mәselesi úzaq jyldar boyy tek talqy retinde qalyp otyrdy. 2019 jyly Resey basshysy Putin AES salugha qatysty óz úsynysyn aitty, alayda Qazaqstan basshysy Toqaev elding oiyn eskermesten múnday jobany bastamaytynyn mәlimdedi.

2021 jyly AES salu iydeyasy qayta talqylyna bastady. Mamyr aiynda preziydent AES saluda asyqpau kerektigin, alayda uaqyttan da qalmau qajettigin aitqan bolatyn. Al joldauda beybit atomgha qatysty sóz qozghap, Resey forumynda AES kerektigin aitty. Degenmen AES-ti saludan búryn, ony kim salady degen súraq manyzdy bolyp qaluda. Qazaqstan biyligi búghan deyin Ontýstik Koreyamen, Japoniyamen, Reseymen, Fransiyamen kelissózder jýrgizgen bolatyn. Degenmen talqylaular men sarapshylardyng pikirlerine sýiensek, AES-ty Resey tarapy saluy mýmkin. Reseydi búl túrghydan tәjiriybesi kóp, biraq joghary tehnologiyagha ie emes. Mysaly Týrkiyagha salyp jatqan AES-ining qabyrghasy eki mәrte jarylyp, qúrylysy toqtap qaldy. Chernobyli apatyn jasap, әlemdi dýrliktirgen Mәskeuding beybit atomda alda degenge senu qiyn.

AES salu mәselesi kóterilip jatqanda, «Qazatompromda» ýlken ózgerister boluda. Mysaly 2 qyrkýiek kýni Ghalymjan Pirmatov qyzmetinen óz erkimen bas tartyp, onyng ornyna Mәjit Shәripov basshylyqqa keldi. 1 qyrkýiek kýni Joldaudan keyin atalmysh ózgeristing oryn alyp, artynsha Preziydentting Reseyde ótken forumda onlayn AES-ke qatysty mәlimdeme jasauy da qyzyq.

Qazaqstandaghy AES salugha qatysty kóterilgen bastamalardy eskere otyryp, onyng tarihyna kóz jýgirtip, AES-ty Resey tarapy saluy mýmkin degen joramaldy algha tartugha bolady.

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