Jeksenbi, 26 Mausym 2022
Bilgenge marjan 4563 5 pikir 16 Tamyz, 2021 saghat 16:26

Altyn Orda: Batu Qaghan, Ibragim jәne Qimaq júrttary

Altyn orda tarihyna qatysty KSRO taraghannan keyin jazylghan tarihy enbekter turaly

4 bólik

Sózbasy: Memleket basshysy Qasym-Jomart Toqaev ózining «Tәuelsizdik bәrinen qymbat» atty maqalasynda: «Býgingi tarihymyz 1991 jylmen nemese 1936 jylmen ólshenbeydi. Halqymyz Qazaq handyghy kezinde de, odan arghy Altyn Orda, Týrik qaghanaty, Ghún, Saq dәuirinde de osy jerde ómir sýrgen, ósip-óngen. Qysqasha aitqanda, últtyq tarihymyzdyng tereng tamyrlary kóne zamannyng ózeginde jatyr. Jalpy, tarihpen sayasatkerler emes, tarihshylar ainalysuy kerek», - degen bolatyn.


A. Bushkov jәne Úly Dala turaly jazbalarynyng audarmasyn Abai.kz oqyrmandaryna úsynbas búryn myna bir tarihy faktini keltire ketpekpiz.

Batu Qaghan, Ibragim jәne Qimaq júrttary

Noghay men qazaqtyng bólingeni, Qara qypshaq Qobylandynyng Qazandy azat etuge attanghany alash foliklorynyng altyn ózegi. Al, 2013 jyldy tatar miyletshil jastarynyng “Azatlyk” qozghalysy Batu Qaghan jyly dep atap Reseydi bir dýrliktirdi. Biz azat el bolsaq ta, Batu Qaghandy dúrystap úlyqtap jýrgen joqpyz. Jana tarihtaghy Tatar (Deshti-iy-Qypshaq) imperiyasy osy han iyemizden bastau alady. Oghan qazir tórt halyq talasyp otyr: orys, tatar-bashqúrt jәne qazaqtar.

Batu hannyng zor әskery reformasy – әlemde birinshi әskeriy-teniz komandosyn qúrghany: onyng qúramynda býgingi kishi jýzding Edil-Jayyq, Aral men Atyraudy, Ertisti meken etken qazaq rularynyng jastary Ibragim júrttyq Edil búlgharlarymen birge boryshyn ótegeni. Ibragim júrttyng jigitterimen birge Atyrau men Araldyq, әm Ertis boyy qazaqtary ýshkýimen (nәn qayyq) teniz joryqtaryn jasady. Keyin orys tarihshylary – teniz qaraqshylary attandyrdy. Attyly qazaqylyqpen birge, qayyqyly qazaqylyq bar ekenin esten shygharmauymyz kerek. Búdan býgingi kýnning biyik gumanistik ansary túrghysynan ýrkip-shoshudyng esh keregi joq: sebebi – kez-kelgen soghys olja týsiru ýshin bastalady. Búl – últymyz ózgelerdi olja etken kezben, miyletimizdi ózgelerding olja etken kezi bar ekenin úmytpaghanymyz jón.

Papa Innoketiy IV 1234 jyly Europany kóktey ótip, songhy tenizge deyin barghan Aral-Atyrau jәne Ibragim júrtynan jasaqtalghan әskerdi «Tozaqtyng (Tartarustyn) әskeri» dep atap, sharmaq joryghyn bastady. Osy joryq ruhaniy-mәdeny auqymda orystardy (slavyandanghan týrkilerdi), tatar-bashqúrt jәne qazaqtardy jadysyzdandyrdy. IYezuitter Batu Qaghannyng imperiyasyn Shynghys qaghandy algha tarta otyryp, osy joryqtardyng qalay bolghanyn bilmeytin, qayyq týgil, tenizdi kórmegen halhagha telip berdi.

Týrkining slavyandanbaghan birtútas júrty Úlygh Tatariya qazaq pen tatar tarihynan syzylyp tastady. Al, «Tatar-manghúl ezgisin» oilap tapqan jan  poliyak koroli Stefan Batoriyding (1533-1586) stats-hatshysy Reyngolid Geydenshteyn «Mәskeu soghysynyng jazbalary (1578-1582 j.)» enbeginde qoldanyp, ony fransuz tarihshysy Jak Ogust de Tu ilip әketti (qara: Vadim Kargalov «Kones ordynskogo iga» kitaby). Búdan song barsha europalyq qazaq tarihy men europalyq tatar tarihy slavyandandy. Biz europalyq mәsihshi qazaq pen músylman qazaq jayly tarihy derekterdi elemey kelemiz. Edil-Jayyqtyq Ibragim júrtynyng alashqa tiyseli alys qiyry – Don jәne bergi qiyry – Atyrau men Araldy, týpki qiyry – Ertisti eske almayda jýrmiz.

Batu Sayyn Han týrli әleumettik toptardyng jasaghan saudasynan týsken tabystaryna salyq engizdi, búny búrynghy da, qazirgi tarihshylar júrttan auyr alym-salyq jinady deuden talmay keledi. Memleketting berik negizi – әsker men salyqtan qúrylady.

Batu-han túsynda Astrahan, Volgograd, Saratov, Ertis boyynda jәne t.b. ónirlerde 100 asa qala salyndy, әri әlemde birinshi ret qaghaz aqshany qoldanysqa engizdi («Ermitajda» – Altyn Orda dәuirinde balysh atalghan ýlken tórt búryshty qaghazdaghy han mórin kórulerinizge bolady). Biraq, Batudy – qazirgi orys tarihshylary ishke tartyp ólip týsse, Múrat Áji ony syrtqa teuip, it etinen jek kóredi. Katolik iyzeuit jәne jәdigóy jalghan músylman jóiitter solardyng kýireuine kýsh salyp, qazaq pen noghay bólindi.

Batu Úlygh Búlghar ónirin bauyryna basqan Joshy úlysynyng baghyn asyrdy.  1944 jyly KOKP OK Altyn Orda tarihy men mәdeniyetin zertteuge tyiym saldy da, barsha noghay-qazaq qalalary orys qalalaryna ainaldy. Onyng aiqyn negizi – Altyn Ordanyng búrynghy Qimaq júrtyndaghy qazirgi Petropavl, Pavlodar, Semey men Óskemen Batu órkendetken qalalardyng ornyna salynghany qaperden shygharylyp, Altyn Orda tarihyna jolatylmay: oibay qazaqta qala bolmaghan degen kenestik mifti ómirge әkeldi.

Qalghan orystanghan noghay-qazaq aqsýiekterin aitpaghanda. Reseydegi iyezuitter Búlghaq tuyndatyp: birtútas halyqty slavyandar men týrkilerge bólgen shaqta Mәskeudi qorghap qalghan noghay-qazaq qosynynyng basshylary  han Bojar men Ibragim júrtynyng Zemskiy starostasy Kirisha Minibaev (túz óndirushi músylman Mәni Ánqúddinning shoqynghan úly) biri – kinәz Dmitriy Pojarskiy, biri – Kuzima Minin atanyp shygha keldi. Biz Joshy úlysyndaghy – Ibrgaim júrt pen Qimaq júrt әkimshilik-aumaqtarynyng naqty qay jerlerdi qamtyghanyn naqty bile almaymyz. Óitkeni, Altyn Orda imperiyalyq kensesining nayman jazuymen týrki tilinde jazylghan qújattaryn, nayman jazuynyng halhalyq núsqasymen almastyrghan falisifikasiyany Resey qytaytanuynyng atasy N.Ya. Bichuriyn-Iakinfpen birlese әreket etken "Iisus Qoghamy" iyezuit ordenining monghúl jazuyn oilap tauyp, búrynghy týrki tilindegi kitaptardy joyyp jiberdi.

Batu Qaghan, әm Ibragim júrty jәne Qimaq júrty týrlinshe atalyp, týrlinshe josyqtalyp jýr. Biraq qazaq-noghay sózi – europalyq alash degendi bildiretinin úmytpaghanymyz jón... qazaqtyng aziattyq kelbetining arghy jaghynda babalarymyzdyng europalyq ruhy jatyr. Europalyq tamyr teksiz zerttelgen qazaq tarihy endigi jerde bir tamyry kem soqqan jarymjan tariyh.

Endi Bushkovqa kezek bereyik...

«Monghol-tatar» shapqynshylyghynyng klassikalyq versiyasyna imanday úiyp qabyldaytyn bolsaq, onda qisyspaytyn qisynsyzdyqtyng ordasyna kezigip, kózge úryp túrghan aqymaqtyqqa kuә bolamyz.

Eng aldymen men belgili ghalym N.A. Morozovtyng (1854–1946) enbeginen kólemdi ýzindi keltire keteyin:

«Kóship-qonyp jýretin halyq ózining túrmys-tirligine say mәdeny óndelmegen zor atyrapta ekonomikalyq ortalyqtanghan, yaghni, boydaq jigitterden túratyn túraqty әskerdi ústap túratyn salyqtyng jalpy temirdey tәrtibine moyynsúnbaytyn jekelegen atashalyq (patriarhaldyq)  toptarmen ómir sýredi. Kez kelgen kóshpendi halyqtardyng úiysa birikken atashalyq toptary bir-birimen júghyspay, jana jaylym ýshin tentireydi.

Eger birneshe myng adamnyng bastary qosyla qalsa, olar odan bólek týrli atashalyqqa qaraytyn qora-qora siyrdy, tabyn-tabyn jylqyny, otar-otar qoydy da biriktirui kerek. Nәtiyjesinde jaqyn mandaghy jayylymdy typ-tipyl qylyp, qayyra ózderining atashalyqtaryna bólinip kettip, óz kiygiz ýilerin basqa jerge tiguding qamyna kiriser edi.

Mine, sondyqtan, maldyng etimen kýn kóretin siyrdyng shuynday shúbatylyp jatqan kóshpeli halyq: monghol, samoed, bәduy jәne basqalardyng újymdasyp, otyryqshy elge shapqynshylyq jasady deytin búnday tap-taza fantaziyalyq iydeya esten tars shygharyluy kerek, óitkeni, búl halyqtar otyryqshylardyng manyna әldebir alapat zúlmat tónegen shaqta ghana jolaydy.

Saharadaghy birde bir jazira barhannan keyin qúm astynda qalghan emes, qúmdy borannan keyin qayta týlep otyrdy. Osyghan baylanysty biz óz tarihymyzdyng ón-boyynda otyryqshy elderge birde-bir kóshpendi elding jenimpazdyqpen joryq jasaghandyghyn bilmeymiz, qayta bәri kerisinshe oryn alyp otyrdy. Demek, búnday qúbylys baghzy tarihta da oryn almaghan. Barsha halyqtardyng ilgeri jәne keri kóship-qonulary tarihy kózqaras boyynsha olardyng biyleushilerining esimimen baylanysty mәdeniyeti damyghan elding mәdeniyeti tómen elge óz biyligin jýrgizui bolyp tabylady».

Altyn sóz. Tarihta orasan zor aimaqtaghy kóshpendiler bas biriktirip, ayaq astynan kýshti memleket qúrmasa da, zor әsker jiyp, tútas eldi jaulap alghan oqigha tarihta bolghan emes.

Tek bir jaghdayda ghana egerde sóz «monghol-tatarlar» jayynda bolghan shaqta osynday shetin jayt oryn aldy. Bizdi Shynghyshan býgingi Manghúl jerinde ómir sýrip, әldebir ghajayyptyng arqasynda úlys-úlys bolyp jýrgen elding basyn sanauly jyldarda biriktire alyp, kez kelgen europalyq armiyany tәrtip jaghynan on oraytyn әsker jasaqtady degenge imanday úygha shaqyrady…

Eng qyzyqtysy ol osyghan qalaysha qol jetkizgendigi? Onyng ýstine, kóshpendilerding otyryqshy elden basty artyqshylyghy shapshandyghy. Ol sonysymen – kóshpendi. Han kóniline jaqpasa odan irge ajyratyp tastap kete alady. Ásirese, sóz Sibirding úlan-ghayyr aumaghy turasynda bolyp túrghan shaqta...

Onyng ýstine bizdi mynanday jaghdaygha sendiruge tyrysady: dalalyq kóshpendiler jel siyaqty jýiitkip, nelikten Shynghyshangha erip «songhy tenizge deyin» barugha kelisuge tiyis. Shynghyshan «bastartushylardy» jazagha tartugha izine týsip quu ýshin myndaghan shaqyrymdy artqa tastauy kerek [mongholdardyng jekelegen rulary dalada emes taygada tirshilik keshti].

«Klassikalyq» versiya boyynsha Shynghyshan qosyny Ruske deyin – bes myng shaqyrymdy jýrip ótti. Tap osyndaydy qalam úshyna iliktirushi kabiynettik sýikektetkish nazariyatshylar eshqashanda osy bir joldy jýrip ótuding mashaqatyna (al búghan «mongholdar» jetken Adriatika jaghalauyn qosatyn bolsaq, onda joryq jolyn taghyda bir jarym myng shaqyrymgha arttyrugha tura keledi ghoy) bastaryn auyrtyp oigha shomyp kórgen emes. Dalalyqtary búnday alys jolgha jetelegen qanday qúdiret, qanday kýsh?

Siz auzynyzdy ashyp mynaghan seniniz, araviya dalasynyng kóshpendi-bәduiyleri Ontýstik  Afrikany jaulap alu ýshin Ayaly Ýmit mýiisine deyin jetipti-mys? Al, Alyaska ýndisteri, oi, bәleket, kóship-qonu ýshin kýnderding bir kýni Meksikadan biraq shyghypty?

Álbette, búnyng barlyghy da, baryp túrghan – bәldu-bәdiktik. Degenmen, Mongholiyadan Adriatikagha deyingi aralyqty «mongholdar» basyp ótu ýshin bәduiylerding – Keyptaungha nemese Alyaska ýndisterining – Meksika búghazyna deyingi joldaryn jýrip ótuine tura keledi emes pe ózi. Jay ghana jýrip ótip qoysa jón ghoy, jәnede jol boyy sol dәuirdegi birneshe iri memleketterdi: Qytay, Horezmdi jaulap ta aldy emes pe, әri, Gýrjistan men Rusti túrymtayday tozdyryp,  Polisha, Chehiya, Vengriyagha basa-kóktep endi…

Tarihshylar bizdi osyghan bas shúlghy senuimizdi úsynady… Eger basynyzdy ala qashyp kónginiz kelmese, onda siz baryp túrghan naqúryssyz, al, ózinizdi baryp túrghan naqúrys sanamau ýshin – arystan basynyz etten bas tartyp, qoymen birge jayylugha tiyistiliginiz erteden kele jatqan tәmsil. Osylaysha «klassikalyq» versiyanyng jaqtaushylary ózderin balaghattaugha jol berip alady…

Tipten feodalizmning ne ekenin bilmegen – rulyq qúrylystaghy – kóshpendi taypa búny az deseniz ayaq astynan temirdey tәripting keregin úghynyp, esh lәm-im demesten Shynghyshannyng sonynan bas shúlghy ilesip, alty jarym myng shaqyrymdy jýrip ótti. Kóshpendilerdi az ghana (óte syghymdalghan!) uaqyttyng ishinde ayaq astynan sol dәuirding eng ýzdik әskery tehnikasy – qamal búzar, tasjaughyr mәshinderin mengerudi ýiretip ýlgerdi…

Oy eleginen ótkizip kórindershi. Eng senimdi derek kózderi boyynsha, Shynghyshan «tarihy otanynyn» sheginen tysqary ózining eng birinshi iri joryghyn 1209 j. jasaydy. Al, 1215 j. ol Bejindi (Han-balyqtaghy – qara qytay-naymandardy) basyp alyp, 1219 j. qorshau qarularyn qoldana otyryp Orta Aziyanyng (oghyz-qonyrattyn) – Merv, Samarqand, Ýrgenish, Hiua, Hodjent, Búhara – qalalaryn  ózine baghyndyryp, aragha jiyrma jyl salyp qamal búzar, tasjaughyr mәshinderimen orys (qypshaq) qalalarynyng qabyrghasyn qaqyrata sógedi.

Qazda uyldyryq bolmaydy degen Mark Tvendiki oryndy: tarna (brukva) aghash basynda óspeydi ghoy!

Búnymen qosa, sanauly jyldardyng ishinde kóshpeliler kentting qabyrghasyn qaqyratar jarsoghar mәshinning qoldanylu ónerin mengerip alugha qabiletsiz ghoy! Al, sol dәuirding barlyq memlekettining armiyasynan ýstem týsetin armiyany qúrudy aitsanshy!

Eng aldymen oghan búnyng esh keregi joqtyn. Morozov әdilettilikpen atap ótkenindey, әlem tarihynda kóshpendilerding memleket qúruynyng nemese ózge eldi talqandauynyng esh mysaly joq (bir auyzdan (atashaly – ýsh jýzge basymdyq berip, atashasyz – qúramany (qazaqilyghyn saqtap, sarttanbaghan ózbekti), bodan bolghan (qalmaq, qyrghyz, qaraqalpaqty jәne qazaqilyghyn saqtamaghan sarttanghan ózbekti) esten shygharyp) ónesh jyrta kóshpendiler qúrghan deytin qazaq handyghyn – Tәshkensiz, Týrkistansyz, Otyrarsyz elestetip kórinizdershi – mongholdardyng sonday qalalary bar ma ózi – Abai.kz). Onyng ýstine, aqylgha syimaytyn uaqyt ishinde bizge resmy ghylym qoyarda qoymay tyqpaldaytyn inju-jauharly oy týiindeuleri: «Qytaygha basa-kóktep kirgennen keyin Shynghyshan armiyasy óz әskery jaraqtanuynyng qataryna qytaydyng aldynghy qatarly әskery tehnikasy – jarsoghar mәshinderin, tasjughar jәne otseber qaru-jaraghyn qosty».

Búl týk emes qoy, búdanda ótken jalghan tarihy inju-marjandar jetip artylady. Óz basym búdanda ótken ghylymy danghoylyqty óte bayypty akademiyalyq jurnaldan oqyp shyqtym: onda  XIII gh. mongholdyng (!) әskeri  flotynyng ejelgi japondaryng kemelerin… әskery zymarandarmen (raketalarmen) atqylaghany sipattalady! (Japondar oghan, óz kezeginde lazerli torpedalarmen jauap bergen shyghar, bәlkim.) Bir sózben aitqanda, az ghana jyldyng ishinde mongholdar ýiregen ónerding sanatyna endi tenizde jýzu qosylyp otyr (Osyny oqyghan әr alash balasy taqymyna basqan attaryn «halhalar» qalay qiyp ketti eken dese, atyraudyng qazaghy teniz shayqaghanda taltandaghan nemeler kemede qalay jýrip túrdy eken dep shegi týiile kýler edi). Bir jaqsysy «manghúldar» eshkimning tóbisinen úshaqpen bomba jaudyrghan joq…

Parasatty oy ghylymy ahualdan basym týsetin jaghdayat ta oryn alady. Ásirese, ghalym fantaziya әlemining qoynauyna sýngip ketip, joqty bar qylghan shaqta, kez kelgen fantast jazushylar búl mening oiyma búryn nege kelmegen dep barmaghyn tisteleydi.

Dәl osy aradaghy manyzy onsha emes saualdyng biri: mongholdardyng әielderi olardy qalay jerding týpkirine jibere salghany? Orta ghasyrdaghy derek kózderining basym bóligi «tatar-monghol ordasyn» qonystanushy halyq emes, әsker retinde jazady. Eshbir әiel, eshbir bala-shagha sóz etilmeydi. Búdan shyghatyny ýy betin kórmegen mongholdar ómirlerining sonyna deyin jat jerde jýrse, kýieulerin ómiri kóruge jazbaghan әielderi mal sonynda salpaqtaydy da?

Kitaptaghy emes, ómirdegi naghyz kóshpendi ózin mýldem basqasha ústaydy: songhy demi tausylghansha mamyrjay kóship qonyp jýredi (keybirde kórshilerimen qaqtyghysyp ta qoyady, onsyz bolmaydy ghoy), olardyng әldebir kórshi eldi baghyndyru nemese jarty әlemdi basyp ótip, «songhy tenizdi» izdeu degeniniz basyna eshqashan keletin oy emes. Pushtun nemese bәduy taypasynyng kósemining oiyna qala salu nemese memleket qúru iydeyasy eshqashan kelmeydi. Sonday-aq, onyng miynyng týkirinen «songhy teniz» syndy auyshtyqty da taba almaysyn. Oghan bir kýndik tirlikting amalyattyng kýibini: tiri qalu, maldyng qonyn týsirip almau, jana jayylym izdeu, sýt pen irimshikti mata men pyshaqqa aiyrbastau… «Jarty әlemdik imperiya» jayly ózin-ózi mýjip jeuge oryn qayda?

Al, bizdi múrynymyzdan tesken ógizdey jetelep dala kóshpendisining ayaq astynan memleket qúru iydeyasynyng oiyna kelgendigine nemese eng qúryp qalghanda «әlemdi bóliske salu» ýshin basyp alushylyq joryghyn jasaghanyna sendiruge tyrysady. Jәne de ekpindi qarqynmen әldebir ghajayyptyng arqasynda taypalastaryn biriktirip, úiymdasqan alapat әskery kýshke ainaldyra bildi. Ári sausaqpen sanarlyq jyldardyng ishinde sol dәuirding qalybymen alghanda óte kýrdeli mәshinderdi iygerte bildi. Sonymen birge, әskery flot jasaqtap, japon bayghústardy zymyranmen atqylady. Onymen qoymay, orasan zor imperiyasy ýshin zang shygharyp berdi. Rim Papasyn, koroliderdi jәne  gersogtardy qalay ómirge sýruge ýirete otyryp, olarmen hat jazysty.

Marqúm (qazekender әr sózin altyngha balap, babalaryng jabayy degenge imanday úiyityn) L.N. Gumiylev (tarihshylar arasynda oiyp oryn alsa da, kóshpendilikti әspetteytin poetikalyq iydeyalardyng sal auruyna úshyrap) jalghan ghajayypty úghyndyryp bere alatyn gipoteza jasap shyqqandyghyna senip ótti (qazekender onyng ayar iydeyasyna shyrmalmay: bir jaghy orekenderding imperiyalyq keudemsoqtyghyn qazaqtyng joghaltqan imperiyalyq mýddesin qayyra tiriltuding paydasyna – uniyversiytetke atyn berip otyrghany qúptarlyq: onyng astarynda Mәskeu imperiyasynyng Alash imperiyasynyng shekpeninen shyqqandyghyn isharamen bilgizip otyru). Búl arada sóz «passionarlyq (úlygh qúshtarlyq) teoriyasy» jayynda bolmaqshy. Gumiylevshe, belgili bir halyq, belgili bir sәtte gharyshtan keletin әldebir tylsymdy jәne jartyshkesh mistikalyq energetikalyq soqqygha iyelik etedi de, búdan song aspay-saspay taudy qoparyp, ghajayyp jasampazdyqtardy jýzege asyrady.

Osy bir tamasha teoriyanyng Gumiylevting óz paydasyna sheshiletin kemshin túsy da bar da, al, búl onyng opponentterimen, kerisinshe, dau-damaydy shiyelenistire týsuge әkep soqtyrady. Isting shyn mәnisinde,  osy «passionarlyqtyng qylang beruimen» kez kelgen halyqtyng kez kelgen әskery nemese basqa da jetistikterin jep-jenil týsindirip shyghugha bolady. Al, «passionarlyq soqqynyn» bolmaghandyghyn dәleldep shyghu is jýzinde esh mýmkin bolmaghandyqtan,  Gumiylevti jaqtaushylardy, olardyng opponentterine qaraghanda jilikting mayly basyn ústaugha mýmkindik berip otyr, óitkeni, qaghazgha nemese plenkagha «passionarlyq aghynyn» tirkeytin qabiletti apparatura sekildi senimdi ghylymy әdiste joq.

Bir sózben aitqanda – qiyalyndy óz qalauynsha sharyqtata ber… Atap aitsaq, ryazan voevodasy Baldoha ózining aibyndy jasaghymen bir sәtte suzdaldyqtardyng jasaghyn tas-talqan etip.., qatyn-qyzynyng etegin týrip, joryqtan әnge basyp oraldy. Boldy. Kózinizdi júmyp alyp, mynany aita salynyz: «Passionarlyq silkiniske iyelik etken ryazandyqtar odan әp-sәtte aiyrylyp qalghan beyshara  suzdaldikterding әkelerin tanytyp qoldaryna berdi».

Keler jyly odan aiyrylghan ryazandyqtardy suzdali kinәzi Timonya Mynqyldaq jenip, jasaghy qyz-qyrqyngha qyrghiday tiyip bolghan son, tәubesine kelip, voevoda Baldohanyng úyatty jerin jalanashtap kirpining ýstine otyrghyzdy. Búl jaghdayda gumiylev mektebinen shyqqan ghalym «Ryazandyqtar búrynghy passionarlyqtarynan aiyrylyp qaldy» dep kólgirsiydi.

Bir sózben aitqanda «Shynghyshan fenomenin» týsindirip beru ýshin «passionarlyq» teoriyasynyng jaramaytyn sebebi: onyng әri dәldep beru men әri joqqa shyghara almaytyn týp negizinde jatyr. Mistisizmdi shymyldyqtyng artynda qaldyra túrayyq.

Al, búl әldebir «onbaghan», aram oily antiymәsihshi orda. Týlki men sarshúnaqty sýisine jeytin moavityandar ayaq astynan qaydan shygha keldi ózi. Keyin orta ghasyrda isting mәnisi osylay bolghandyghyn jayynda dәiek sózder keltiretin bolam…

«Tatar-monghol ezgisi» medalining kórinbes túsyna oralayyq. Ol – «Ordalyqtar» men orystar arasyndaghy ózindik erek qatynas. Búl salada Gumiylev ózine júdyryq júmsaudan góri maqtaugha túrady: ol «Rus» pen «Orda» arasyndaghy qarym-qatnastardaghy selbesu jóninde asa zor material jinady.

Aq adalyn aitar bolsam, býl jerde onday dәlelderdi tizbektep shyqqym kelip otyrghan joq. Orys kinәzdary men «monghol handarynyn» anda men qúdandaly bolghany, joryqqa birge attanghandary az jazylyp jýrgen joq. Basyp alghan jerlerinde olar qalay qamsyz jýre alady (eshkim eshkimdi basyp alghan joq – jalpy týrkilik azamat soghysy ayaqtalyp – batysqa joryq jasaldy, әri, anda-sanda búryq etetin diny dýrdarazdyq kezinde tәnirshil qypshaq qalalary men auyldary músylman bauyrlary tarapynan otqa oranyp otyrdy – Abai.kz)...

Men búnyng bәrin oidan shygharyp otyrghan joqpyn, bar joghy orys jylnamalaryndaghy derekterdi keltirip otyrmyn. Orys (norman) bitken jerde tatar bastalady…

Búl qalay bolghany sonda. Rus degenimiz siz úmytyp qalmasanyz Altyn ordanyng tap ózi?...

Gumiylev búnday ólermendik qadamyn jasay almady. Al, men bolsam búnday tәuekelge bel budym. Bizding uәjimiz boyynsha. Birinshiden, eshbir «mongoloidter» (Bushkov dúrys aityp otyr týrki halyqtary ishinde týrin saqtap qalghan jalghyz últ – qazaqsha noghaylar, oryssha – tatarlar) eshqaydan kelgen joq (әskery jolmen islam dinin taratushylar keldi de, bir pendening qos dindi ústanyp jýre beretin dәuiri tudy), ekinshiden, (osyny paydalanghan Batys – dini týrli subetonsty tas-talqan etip) zorlyqpen slavyandandyrdy (ony Bushkov orys pen tatar dostyghy bolghan dep óz topshalauyn úsynady: basqynshy eshqashan bodanymen dos bolghan emes. Al, shyn orystar, yaghni, normandarmen qúdalyq pen andalyq oryn aldy). Bizge óz qisynymyz boyynsha Rus pen Orda bir ghana atau («dinsiz (moavityan emes, mogemetan (músylman) qypshaq) tatar ordasy», iyezuit kóshirushi qate jazyp júrtty shatystyryp otyr «qypshaq-tatar» dep úghamyz). Al, «zúlym tatarlar» keyin oilap shygharyldy (bir nәrse aiqyn «qypshaq shapqynshylyghy» din aluandyghy negizde «músylman-mәsihshi týrkiler ordasy» retinde bir tudyng astyna birigip, uaqytsha kelisimge keldi, әri din aluandyghynan óz týbine ózi jetti. Búl tarihy tirkestegi tatar sózi qazirgi últ atauyn bildirmeydi olar: búlgharlar, al, mәsihshi týrki degen úghymdy bildiredi. «Tatar» týrki tilinde arian dinin (isasyz hristiandyqty) ústanushy degen degen úghymgha da iye, al, oghan býgingi tatarlar ólse kónbeydi – Abai.kz)...

(Jalghasy bar)

1 bólik: Altyn orda tarihy: KSRO taraghannan keyin jazylghan enbekter

2 bólik: Aleksandr Bushkov. Altyn Orda tarihy jayynda...

3 bólik: Bushkov: «Qalqanyng – sheshui qiyn júmbaghy»

Ábil-Serik Áliakbar

Abai.kz

5 pikir