Dýisenbi, 29 Qarasha 2021
Tarih 7111 81 pikir 25 Shilde, 2021 saghat 12:49

Ámir Temir jәne onyng armiyasy

Ámir Temir búrynghy Horezm imperiyasyn jәne onyng Mәuerennahr aumaghyn tolyqtay jaulap alghan son, ortalyq aziyalyq qala Samarqandty ózining reziydensiyasyna ainaldyrdy. Kóshpeli halyq imperiyasy ýshin Samarqand Ýndistan jәne  Mysyrgha, basqa da músylman memleketterine baratyn Jibek jolynyng dәl tósine ornalasqan bolatyn.

Osman týrikteri vizantiyalyq Konstantinopolidi jaulap alyp, imperiyanyng basqaru punktine ainaldyrsa (artynan Stambúl dep atady), Temirlan Horezmnen Samarqandty tartyp alghan son, ony basqaru ortalyghyna ainaldyra bildi. Osy arada kishkene sheginis jasap, endi Temirlan turaly aita ketsek deymiz. ÁmirTemir 1336 jyly (Tyshqan jyly) toghyzynshy sәuirde Shahrisabz qystaghynda tughan bolatyn. Ákesi Taraghay (nemese Targhyn) Nayman taypasynyng  Barlas ruynan. Týrki qypshaqtar (Shynghys han qaghanaty) Mәuerennahrdy jaulap alghanda Shynghys hannyng úly Shaghataymen birge kelgen Naymannyng biraz atasy (Shynghys hangha qaraghan naymandar)  osy aragha qonys tepken edi. Sol zamannyng ataqty jylnamashysy әri tarihshysy, ispan elshisi Klavihonyng jazghandaryna kónil bóleyik. Dәlme-dәl maghyna bersin dep, audarmay orysshasyn berdik. « Timur unasledoval organizasii armiy ot Chingiza, predusmatrivavshui ee razdeleniye. Eto iyerarhicheskaya sistema razdelyala kajdyy domen na voennye soediyneniya, sootvetstven no chislu ludey v sborah. Timur y ego dom svyato otnosilisi k zakonom Chingiza. V ih otryadah, ih dvorah, ih prazdnestvah, ih deystviyah ony nikogda ne deystvovaly protiv institutov Chingiza». Ámir Temirdin  ózi  men onyng armiyasy negizinen kóshpeli taypalardyng negizinde qúralghandyqtan, olargha Shynghys han jasaqtarynyng әskery qúrylymy jәne soghys tәsilderi sonshalyqty jaqyn boldy.  Ámirding ózi de kóshpeli qypshaq taypalarynyng úlany desek qatelespeymiz. Múny, ataqty biyleushini zerttegen jәne jazghan Amerika, sonymen qatar, Europa ghalymdary dәleldep otyr.

Mysaly, zertteu jazbalarynda bylay deydi: «Kogda Timur prizval svoy narod k voyne, pisal Klaviho, sobiralisi vse, vkluchaya jen y detey, y vystupaly s niym, okrujennye stadamiy».

«Nikto nikogda ne otdelyaetsya ot svoih stad. Ety idut s nimy vmeste na voynu, peremeshayasi s odno mesta na drugoe. Pry etom jenshiny, kotorye iymeiyt malenikih detey, vezut ih v malenikih kolybelyah, a kogda jenshiny edet na loshadi, ona kladet rebenka na perednuu luku sedla. IYmelisi takje v ego (Timura)armiy mnogo jenshiyn, kotorye vmeshivalisi v rukopashnye shvatky v samyh jestokiyh boyah y borolisi s mujchinamy y srajalisi s hrabrymy voynami, odolevaly moshnye ordy v srajeniyah udaramy piyk, sabeli y streliboy strelamiy».

Atqa minip ýirengen, erlerimen tize qosyp soghysypjattyqqan, kónbis qazaqtyng qyzdary men әielderi bolmasa, qay halyqtyn, sonynishinde otyryqshy elderding (osedlyh) әielderi múnday joryqtargha tózer me edi?

Ámir Temir ózining ýzengiles dosy Qyranshy batyrdan: «Býkil Samarqandty, Búharany, Hiua men Ýrgenishti, Mәuerennahrdy baghyndyrdyq, endi búlardyng túrghyndaryn әskerge dayyndaymyz ba, ne isteymiz?» – dep súra ghany bar. Sonda Qyranshy batyr: «Búlar qystaqtan shyqpaytyn  el ghoy, at ýstinde otyryp jaugha dúrys  shaba almaydy. Taqymdary әlsiz. Esek ýstinde otyryp jýk tartpasa. Búlardyng ústalaryn jinap alyp, qaru-jaraq, jebe jasatqanymyz әldeqayda ondy bolar. At ýstinde oinap ósken ózinizding qypshaqtarynyz – әskerinizding negizgi kýshi emes pe? Myna  sarttardy qossanyz, әskerding jauyngerlik qabiletin әlsiretip aluynyz mýmkin», – degeni bar. Sony eskerip, ÁmirTemir osy ólkening ústalaryn jinap alyp, arba-arba jebe jasatyp otyrdy. Sonday-aq, ústalardy ýnemi joryqqa da birge alyp jýrdi.

Europalyq hristiandardy kóshpeli qazaq taypalarynyng (әsirese,  Jalayyrlardyng ) kýshimen  ashsa alaqanynda, júmsa júdyryghynda ústap kelgen nayzaghayday jyldam Bayazid Kishi Aziyagha Timurdy jibergisi kelmedi. Al Ámir Temirding maqsaty – Kishi Aziyany jaulap alyp, sodan keyin Ýndistandy, Mysyrgha deyingi el-júrtty jәne Mysyrdy basyp alyp, sóitip, býkil Aziya qúrlyghyn ózine baghyndyru bolatyn.

Amerikalyq ghalym Hilida Hukhem ózining Ámir Temir turaly jazghan ghylymy - zertteu júmystarynda sol uaqyttaghy  kóp oqighalargha  óte úqypty, shynayylyqpen  kónil uadaryp, kóptegen  derekterdi ashyq týrde naqty taldap, mәn bere   kórsetken. «Ordy Temirlana,  turkskie po svoemu proishojdenii, hotya otnudi ne chingizskogo klona-sostavlyaly glavnuy silu Timura, a serdsevinu y rukovodyashee yadro sostavlyaly predstaviytely ego sobstvennogo plemeny Naymanov iz ego roda Barlasov».

Sol Hilida Hukhemnin  jazghanynday,  «Naymannyng Sayypqyrany» búl kezenge deyin býkil Ortalyq Aziya elderin biriktirip, Kavkaz ben Qyrymdy jaulap aldy. 1402 jyly shilde aiynyng jiyrma segizi kýni Ankara týbinde sol zamannyng asa zor soghysy bastaldy. Jalpy, Osman týrikteri әskerining ýshten ekisi Deshti Qypshaq jerining Jalayyrlary  bolatyn. Kezinde at ýstinde otyryp soghys jýrgize almaytyn yanycharlary (jayau әskerleri) kóp elderge shamasy kelmey jenilip qala bergen son, týrik súltandary  kóshpeli qypshaqtardyng handary men taypa basshylaryna elshilerin jiberip, altyn men kýmisti ayamay tógip, olardyng atty әskerlerin jalgha alghan bolatyn. Sóitip baryp qypshaqtar (naqtyraq aitqanda Jalayyrlar)  Osman týrikterine imperiya bolugha jol ashyp  jәne imperiyasynyng negizin  qúryp berdi. Qypshaqtyng atty sarbazdarynyng kýshimen Europanyng jәne Aziyanyng biraz bóligin basyp aldy. Týrik yanycharlary tek artta jýrip, demeushi soghyskerlerding rólin atqardy. Osman týrikteri men Ámir Temir әskerleri Ankara týbinde soghysugha qarsy túrghan kezde janaghy Jalayyrlar  óz qandastaryna qol kóteruge dәti jetpey, Temirlan jaghyna shyghyp ketti. Ony ispandyq Klaviha bylay dep jazady: «Kogda ony sblizilisi drug s drugom dlya bitvy, pervoe neschastie, kotoroe obrushilosi na Bayazida, bylo to, chto kochevoe plemya Jalayyry, vse pogolovno predaly ego, a tak kak ony sostavlyaly glavnuy chasti ego voysk, to ego armiya byla silino oslablena». Amaly qalmaghan Bayazid qolyna qylyshy men baltasyn alyp, soghysqa ózi aralasty. Biraq, qypshaqtyng bolattay berik sarbazdary qoysynba, birneshe saghattyng ishinde Týrik yanycharlarynyng tas-talqanyn shyghardy. «Istrebiyteli hristianskogo Zapada byl razgromlen orlom Barlasov» (Hilida Hukhem). Bayazid pen onyng jaqtastarynyng kóbi qolgha týsti. Áyeldikke alghanyna birneshe aighana bolghan serb qyzy Oliyver men últy týrik jas toqaly Patma ekeui Ámir Temirding qolyna ótip, joryqta jýrgen imperatordyng sýiiktisine ainaldy. Onbay jenilgen  Týrik qaghanatynyng kóteriluine jarty ghasyrdan asa uaqyt ketti. Degenimen, olar endi qypshaq taypalarynsyz kóp eshkimdi jaulap ala almady.  Osman imperiyasyn bir joryghynda ghana oiranyn shygharyp, qúrdymgha ketirse, Altyn Orda imperiyasyn ýsh ret soqqy berip, әreng әlsiretti (qalay desekte, ekeuide qypshaq taypalarynyng imperiyasy emespe). Biraq, ydyrata almady. Altyn Orda Toqtamys pen Edigening jәne Mamaydyng taqqa talasuynan jeke handyqtargha bólinip ketti.

Beysenghazy Úlyqbek,

Qazaqstan Jurnalister odaghynyng mýshesi

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