Jeksenbi, 23 Qantar 2022
Janalyqtar 2642 0 pikir 31 Mamyr, 2012 saghat 08:40

Jasaral Quanyshәliyn. Qasiyetti paryz

"Aqtaban shúbyryndy" jәne 30-shy jyldar ashtyghynyng qúrbandaryn mәngilik este saqtau qajettigi turaly tolghanys

 

Qarataudyng basynan kósh keledi,

Kóshken sayyn bir taylaq bos keledi.

El-júrtynan aiyrylghan jaman eken,

Eki kózden móltildep jas keledi....

("Elim-ay")

"Qalyng elim, qazaghym qayran júrtym..."

Jyr kese, toy-tomalaq, qayda kýlking ?

Saghalap bóten júrttyng bosaghasyn,

Tausyldy-au aq talqanyn, airan sýtin...

("Tariyhqa ýnilu")

 

Eki ólen. Ekeui de - esten ketpes taghdyr belesterinde tughan múndas ólen.

Búl ólenderding arasynda eki jarym ghasyr silemi jatyr. Alghashqysyn 1723 jyly qazaqtardy tútqiyldan ghalamat kýizeliske úshyratyp, 1,5 million úl-qyzyn bilekting kýshimen, nayzanyng úshymen jer jastandyrghan jonghar qontayshysy Ghaldan-Seren genosiydinen keyin qan jylap, qatary siyrep qalghan halyq atynan Qojabergen jyrau shygharghan edi. Al, ekinshi ólendi keshe ghana aramyzdan ketken ayauly aqynymyz Toqash Berdiyarov 1932-33 jyldar ashtyghynyng izimen jazypty ("Leninshil jas", 1988 jyl, 4 avgust).

"Aqtaban shúbyryndy" jәne 30-shy jyldar ashtyghynyng qúrbandaryn mәngilik este saqtau qajettigi turaly tolghanys

 

Qarataudyng basynan kósh keledi,

Kóshken sayyn bir taylaq bos keledi.

El-júrtynan aiyrylghan jaman eken,

Eki kózden móltildep jas keledi....

("Elim-ay")

"Qalyng elim, qazaghym qayran júrtym..."

Jyr kese, toy-tomalaq, qayda kýlking ?

Saghalap bóten júrttyng bosaghasyn,

Tausyldy-au aq talqanyn, airan sýtin...

("Tariyhqa ýnilu")

 

Eki ólen. Ekeui de - esten ketpes taghdyr belesterinde tughan múndas ólen.

Búl ólenderding arasynda eki jarym ghasyr silemi jatyr. Alghashqysyn 1723 jyly qazaqtardy tútqiyldan ghalamat kýizeliske úshyratyp, 1,5 million úl-qyzyn bilekting kýshimen, nayzanyng úshymen jer jastandyrghan jonghar qontayshysy Ghaldan-Seren genosiydinen keyin qan jylap, qatary siyrep qalghan halyq atynan Qojabergen jyrau shygharghan edi. Al, ekinshi ólendi keshe ghana aramyzdan ketken ayauly aqynymyz Toqash Berdiyarov 1932-33 jyldar ashtyghynyng izimen jazypty ("Leninshil jas", 1988 jyl, 4 avgust).

Osy eki alapat apattyng halqymyzdy adam aitqysyz qayghy-qasiretke batyryp, damu qarqynyn ondaghan jyldargha tejep, bolashaghyna zor núqsan keltirip ketkeni aqiqat. "Bayaghyday bolar ma taghy zaman !" - dep halyq bekerge kýnirenbegen ghoy.

IYә, 1723 jylghy qyrghyn bolmaghanda, halqymyz HH ghasyrgha kem degende 8-10 million jany bar irgeli el bolyp jeter edi. "Aqtaban shúbyryndy, Alqakól súlama" jetkizbedi. Rossiyada 1897 jyly jýrgizilgen túnghysh halyq sanaghynda qazaqtardyng imperiya shenberindegi jalpy sany 3786 myng dep kórsetildi. (Osy resmiy-statistikalyq derekke ghylymiy-demografiyalyq týzetuler jasaghan belgili demograf ghalym Maqash Tәtimov búl sannyng dúrysy 4200 myng boluy kerek dep shamalaydy. - J.Q ).

Jana ghasyr... 1916 jylghy últ-azattyq kóterilisinin, ile-shala revolusiya men azamat soghysynyng jýz myndaghan qúrbandary, 18-20 jyldar ashtyghynyng milliongha juyq (Sh.Múrtazaevtyng "Qyzyl jebe" piesasynan alynghan derek. - J.Q.) beykýnә sheyitteri, jat jerge auyp ketken bosqyndar... Nәtiyjesinde alghashqy sanaqtan keyin ótken 30 jyl ishinde qazaqtardyng sany nebary 182 myngha (bes-aq prosent) ósip, 1926 jylghy sanaqta 3 968 myng boldy.

Tap osy aralyqta ukraindar - 61, gruzinder - 52, tatarlar - 49, orystar men latyshtar - 40, litvandar - 39, estondar - 38, qyrghyzdar - 36, armiyandar men moldavandar - 34, chuvashtar - 32, mordvalar - 31 prosentke, bayaulau ósken әzirbayjandardyng ózi - 20, belorustar - 15, evreyler - 14, ózbekter - 12, týrikmender - 9 prosentke kóbeydi. Tek bashqúrttar ghana 45 prosentke oisyray azayyp ketken (Volga boyyndaghy ashtyqtyng zardabynan boluy yqtimal).

Songhy kezde ortalyq basylymdarda jaryq kórgen mәlimetterge qaraghanda, 1926 jyldan keyingi halyq sanaghy 1936 jyly jýrgizilgen. Alayda, onyng qorytyndysynan eki sanaq aralyghynda halyq sanynyng kýrt kemigenin kórip, shoshyp ketken Stalin dereu sanaq jýrgizuge jauapty qyzmetkerlerdi jazalap, 1939 jyly qaytara sanaq jýrgizuge әmir etedi. Qazir bizding qolymyzda bary - Stalinning tikeley qadaghalauymen әbden ekshelip, "týzetilip", ashtyq pen repressiya qúrbandary býrkemelenip jariyalanghan sol 39 jyldyng sanaq mәlimetteri.

Biraq 32-33 jyldar ashtyghynyng izi qansha jasyrghanmen sayrap jatyr. Sanaqaralyq 13 jyl ishinde armyandar men moldavandar - 37, orystar, tatarlar men tәjikter - 30, әzirbayjandar - 29, ózbekter men gruzinder - 24, chuvashtar - 23, belorustar men bashqúrttar - 18, qyrghyzdar men evreyler - 16, mordvalar - 9, týrikmender - 6 prosentke kóbeyse, qazaqtar - 22, latyshtar - 19, estondar - 18, litvandar - 12, ukraindar - 1 prosentke azayghan.

Búl faktiler mynaday anyqtamany qajet etedi: atalmysh kezende Baltyq jaghalauynda ashtyq bolmaghany belgili, demek, latyshtar, estondar men litvandardyng azangy, negizinen, emigrasiyagha baylanysty bolsa kerek. Al, qazaqtar men ukraindarding seldireui tikeley ashtyqtyng saldary.

Qazir kópshilikke tam-túmdap jariya bola bastaghan mәlimetter boyynsha, ashtyq kezinde ukraindar shamamen 4-5 million, qazaqtar 3 million adamynan aiyrylghan. Búl shyghyn ukrain siyaqty iri halyqtyng 10-15 prosentin qamtysa, qazaq halqynyng teng jartysy edi. Sondyqtan 1933 jyldan sanaqqa deyingi 6 jyl ishinde tabighy ósim esebinen ukraindar ashtyq aldyndaghy sanyna qaytadan juyqtasa (1926 jyl - 36 000 myn, 1939 jyl - 35 500 myn), qazaqtar (1926 jyl - 3 968 myn, 1939 jyl - 3 101 myn) tek 60-shy jyldardyng basynda ghana 1926 jylghy dengeyine jetti.

Eger eldi ashtyq jaylamaghanda, halqymyz atalghan uaqyt aralyghyndaghy basqalardyng tabighy ósimi qarqynymen kóbeyip otyrsa, 1939 jyly 30101 myng emes, 6 - 7 milliongha, sóitip, qazir kem degende 15 - 20 million dengeyine jeter edi.

Qayta qúru, jariyalylyq kezenine deyin 30-jyldar ashtyghy turaly shyndyq aitylmay keldi. Sonyng saldarynan beybit uaqytta qazaqtar sanynyng oisyray kemip ketui әrtýrli qisynsyz dәleldermen týsindirildi. Mysaly, 1982 jyly Moskvanyng "Finansy y statistika" baspasynda shyqqan "Naselenie SSSR segodnya" kitabynyng 35-betinde mynaday "týsinik" berilgen: "Dovolino silino snizilasi s 1926 po 1939 gg. chislennosti kazahov, chto otchasty obiyasnyaetsya sokrasheniyem ih estestvennogo prirosta. Nemalovajnui roli zdesi, vidimo, sygralo y nekotoroe prevyshenie chislennosty kazahov na 1926 g. za schet prisoediyneniya k nim chasty kirgizov y nekotoryh drugih turkoyazychnyh grupp".

Osy ýzindide kóldeneng tartylghan eki "sebeptin" bir de biri shyndyqqa mýlde janaspaydy. Birinshiden, osy 13 jyl ishinde tabighy ósim tómendedi degen úshqary oigha oryn bergenning ózinde halyq sany sonshama kemui mýmkin emes. Ekinshiden, ózge halyqtar esesinen sanyn kóbeytu bylay túrsyn, kerisinshe, qazaqtar ýnemi ózderi basqa halyqtar qataryn tolyqtyryp otyrghan. "Aqtaban" nemese Goloshekinning kezinde bosqyngha týsken qazaqtardyng kópshiligi tuystas, tildes halyqtargha qosylyp ketken.

Búghan "Bilim jәne enbekte" (1982, № 10, 8-bet) jariyalanghan "Bәri zandylyq" atty maqaladaghy M.Tәtimovtyng myna sózderi de aighaq bolady: "...Ótken qiyn zamannyng keybir alasapyran aumaly-tókpeli kezinde bizding qazaq halqynyng sany qatty kemip qana qoyghan joq, sonymen qatar beynebir erigen qar suynday jyljy aghyp, oida joqta ózbek bauyrlarynyng sanyn kelip toltyrghan.

...Qazaq júrtynyng esesinen kezinde ózbekter ghana emes, kórshi qaraqalpaqtar, qyrghyz, týrikmen halyqtarynyng sany da biraz ósti".

Sol maqalada jәne onymen qatar basylghan Nókis qalasynyng azamaty Janabay Saparovtyng hatynda Ózbekstandaghy kóptegen qazaqtar pasportqa "ózbek" bolyp jazylyp, halyq sanaqtarynda ózbek retinde esepke alynatyny da aitylghan. Tashkent oblysynyng Bostandyq audanynyda túratyn keybir qazaq tanystarymnyng da tap osynday jaghdayda jýrgenin men de rastay alamyn.

Betbúrys talaptarynyng biri - shyndyq, tek qana shyndyq! Shyn mәninde tolyq, býkpesiz aqiqattyng týp-tamyryna tereng boylay týsu shart. Demek, qazaq halqy tarihyndaghy asa qaraly eki kezendi airyqsha nazargha alatyn kez jetti.

Qazir elimizde stalindik repressiya qúrbandaryna eskertkish ornatu isi qolgha alynyp jatyr. Búl - asa qajetti is. Sol siyaqty, Almatyda 1723 jәne 1932-33-jyldar qúrbandaryna arnalghan arnayy eskerkish túrghyzu - bizding qasiyetti paryzymyz dep bilemin. Ol eskertkish qalanyng qay túsyna ornyghuy kerek? Múny kóp bolyp aqyldasqan jón.

Al, eskertkish qanday boluy kerek? Búl saualgha jauap beru ýshin ózge halyqtardyng osynday múnly tәjiriybesinen tuyndaghan monumenttik ónerine nazar audarsa artyq bolmas edi. Latviyadaghy Úly Otan soghysy kezinde fashister konslageride qúrtyp jibergen 100 mynnan asa qúrbandardy eske saqtau maqsatymen 1967 jyly ashylyp, avtorlary 1970 jyly Lenindik syilyq alghan Memorialdyq ansambliden kóp ýlgi alugha bolar edi. Búl Memorialdyq ansambliding qúramynda arnayy muzey men "Azap joly" boyyna túrghyzylghan simvoldyq kompozisiyalar bar.

Nemese 1915 jylghy genosidke baylanysty armyandardyng óz tarihyn mýsin óneri tilimen qalay sóiletkenin kóru kerek.

Al endi uaqyty, keybir sipattary, qúrbandardyng sany jaghynan 30-jyldar qyrghynyna óte úqsas tarihy oqigha - 1975-77 jyldary Kampuchiyada 7 million halyqtyng (óz halqynyn) 3 millionyn qyryp tynghan Pol Pot pen Yeng Sary genosiydi. Kampuchiyada qazir 20 may resmy týrde genosid qúrbandaryn eske alu kýni bolyp esepteledi, al, el astanasy Pnompenidegi búrynghy Tuol Sleng liyseyi genosid qúrbandarynyng muzeyine ainaldyrylghan.

Sonymen, Almatyda múnday eskertkish qúramynda әri mýsindik tuyndylar, әri muzey, әri ghylymiy-zertteu mekemeleri (bireui 1723 jylgha, ekinshisi 1932-33 jyldargha arnalghan) bar tútas kompleks bolghany abzal. Mysaly, eskertkish myna surettegi (ókinishke oray, mening osy maqalamen birge jurnalgha bergen sol suretim jariyalanbay qaldy jәne keyin onyng ózin redaksiyadan taptyrta almadym. Áriyne, qajet bolsa, ony qalpyna keltire alamyn. - J.Q.) arka týrinde jasalyp, arkanyng eki tirek-tabany ghylymiy-zertteu mekemeleri, orta túsy - muzey bolsa, al, arkanyng ón boyy tiyisti mýsindik suret - barelieftermen kómkerilse.

Sonday-aq, keybir respublikalarda túrghyzylghan Otan-Ana (mәselen, "Mati - Gruziya", "Mati - Ukraina") ýlgisinde astanamyzda simvol-eskertkish ornatu isine de biz әli samarqau qaraumen kelemiz. Aq jaulyq ne aq kiymeshek kiygen qazaq әielining beynesi osy eskertkishting basty simvoly bola alady ghoy dep oilaymyn.

Uaqyttyng ózi úsynyp otyrghan osynau mәselege baylanysty kókeyimizde kópten jýrgen keybir úsynystarymyzdy algha tarta otyryp, tiyisti mekeme, jauapty úiymdardyn, mamandardyn, jalpy júrtshylyqtyng búghan qalay qaraytynyn bilgimiz keledi.

Jasaral Quanyshәliyn,

KazPIY-ding oqytushysy, SSSR

Jurnalister odaghynyng mýshesi.

Redaksiyadan: Osy maqalada qozghalghan mәselege, kópshilik oqyrman, Siz qalay qaraysyz? Úsynys-tilekterinizdi ashyq aityp, oilarynyzdy ortagha salugha shaqyramyz

"Jalyn", 1988 j., №6.

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