Beysenbi, 23 Qyrkýiek 2021
Alashorda 7371 7 pikir 14 Shilde, 2021 saghat 15:06

Altynsarin bederlengen bir suretting syry

Ataqty aghartushy qayratker Ybyray Altynsarin 1889 jyldyng 17 shildesinde Tobyl ózenining sol jaq jaghalauyna ornalasqan Qostanay qalasynyng irgesindegi qystauynda dýnie salady. Kóktemning basynda jabysqan sozylmaly dert dәrigerlerding em-domyna kónbey, jaz ortasynda ony jenip tynady. Onyng artynda mol pedagogikalyq enbekter, mol epistolyarlyq múra, týrli mazmúndaghy jazbalar, aghartushy-qayratkerlik qyzmetining nәtiyjesinde Torghay oblysynyng territoriyasynda qalyptasqan mektepter jýiesining (uezdik-auyldyq) soqpaghy qalady. Altynsarinnyng mezgilsiz qazasy qazaq júrtyn da, bilim salasynyng qyzmetkerlerin de kýizeltedi. Ataqty túlghanyng janazasyna qazaq, tatar, orys júrty bar 900-ge juyq kisi jinalady. Orynbor qalasynan shyghatyn «Orenburgskiy listok» gazeti qazanama (nekrolog) jazyp, marqúmnyng ústazy әri dosy N.Iliminskiy qayghyly habardy estisimen dereu estelik jinaq qúrastyrugha kirisedi...

Bizding zamanymyzgha Altynsarin beynesi tanbalanghan eki fotosuret jetti. Birinde aghartushy shәkirtter men ústazdar ortasynda otyrsa, ekinshisinde onyng óz otbasymen týsken beynesi bederlengen. Aghartushynyng shәkirtter ortasyndaghy suretining týsirilgen mezgili men mekeni – 1889 jyldyng sәuir aiynyng basy, Qostanay qalasyndaghy eki klastyq orys-qazaq mektebi. Fotonyng Qostanay mektebinde týsirilgenin N.Iliminskiy ózining 1891 jyly Qazan qalasynda jariyalaghan «Y.A.Altynsarin turaly estelikter» atty jinaghynda atap ótip, ondaghy oqushylardyng syrtqy beynesin suretshi A. Chernyshevtyng 1853 jyly «Hudojestvennyy listok» gazetine ««Shkola dlya kirgizskih detey v Orenburge» atty taqyryppen jariyalanghan maqalasynda beynelengen «bes danyshpan» (Marhabbat: https://kstnews.kz/newspaper/1016/item-66474) shәkirtting kiyim ýlgilerimen salystyra sóz etedi.

Fotosuret Y.Altynsarinnyng qaytys bolar mezgilinen, shamamen, 3 ay búryn týsirilgen. Kóne suretting tarihy manyzy mynaday: atalmysh suret Qostanay qalasynda ústazdyq etken alghashqy múghalimderding qataryn týgendeuge sep bolady. Búl – bir. Ekinshiden, surettegi oqushylar – Qostanay mektebining oryssha biliminen ilim-tәlim izdegen shәkirtterding alghashqy legi. Olardy da anyqtau manyzdy mәsele (1 suret).

1suret. Y.Altynsarin Qostanay orys-qazaq mektebining shәkirtteri jәne ústazdarymen birge. 1889 jyldyng sәuir aiy. Qostanay qalasy.

Suret týsirilgen uaqytta Y. Altynsariyn, onyng zamandas әriptesterining aituynsha, dertke shaldyghyp, nauqastanyp jýredi. Búl turaly Qostanay qalasyndaghy eki klastyq orys-qazaq mektebining mengerushisi F. Sokolov 1889 jyldyng 9-tamyzynda N.Iliminskiyge joldaghan esteliginde bylay dep jazady (jazbanyng mazmúnyn týpnúsqada tolyq saqtau ýshin oryssha berudi jón sanap otyrmyz): «Dobreyshiy y dorogoy Ivan Alekseevich zabolel 24-go aprelya ot rasstroystva serdsa y pecheni, ot chego y skonchalsya. Nedely za dve do serieznogo zabolevaniya pokoynyy jalovalsya na kakoe-to neopredelennoe nedomoganie y v etom sostoyaniy on snyati na kartochke vmeste s uchiytelyamy y kirgizskimy uchenikamiy...».

«Ivan Alekseevich» - Altynsarinnyng bilim salasyndaghy qyzmettes dostary men tanystarynyng orys mәdeniyeti negizine beyimdep ataghan laqaby. 1889 jyly «Orenburgskiy listok» gazetinde jariyalanghan qazanamada (nekrologta) onyng osy laqap esimi de atalady (2 suret).

2 suret. «Orenburgskiy listok» gazetinde jariyalanghan qazanamadan ýzindi

Fotosuretke Altynsarindy qosa eseptegende 23 adam qamtylghan (1 suret). Olardyng on jetisi – mektep oqushylary-shәkirtter. Beseui – eresek kisiler. Olar fotonyng ortanghy bóliginde beynelengen. Beseuding bireui, anyq bayqalyp túrghanday, әskery kisi, al qalghan tórteuin Y.Altynsarinmen qyzmettes bolghan bilim salasynyng kisileri dep sanaymyz. Múny N.Iliminskiyding atalmysh suretke bergen myna bir mazmúndyq sipttamasynan bayqaymyz: «...Na vtoroy kartiyne 1889 goda predstavleny sidyashimy v ryad, sprava uezdnyy nachaliniyk, russkiy polkovniyk, sleva inspektor Altynsarin v formennom viyse–mundiyre; po storonam togo y drugogo sidyat dva russkih uchiytelya iz vospitannikov Kazanskoy uchiyteliskoy seminarii, za etim sidyat ih pomoshniky kirgizy iz vospitannikov Orskoy uchiyteliskoy shkoly, - uchiytelya y ih pomoshniky v chernyh surtukah».

Sonymen Qazan jәne Or múghalimdik mektebin bitirgen ústazdar kimder? Áskery shendegi uezd basshysy kim?

Aldymen, Y.Altynsarinnyng janynda otyrghan әskery kisining kim ekendigin naqty anyqtap alayyq. Sebebi Altynsarintauda ony Torghay uezining basshysy Ya.P.Yakovlevpen shatastyru oryn alghan. Búl kisi – Qostanay uezining basshysy, polkovnik N.Karaulov (1886-1890 jyldary uezd basshysynyng qyzmetin atqarghan). Aghartushynyng tanymal shәkirti, ústaz Ghúbaydolla Balghymbaevtyng jazuynsha, Y.Altynsarin Qostanay uezining basshysymen óte jaqsy qarym qatynasta bolghan. «Onyn, - dep jazady Gh. Balghymbaev, - Qostanaydaghy orys intelliygenterinen kónildes dos-jarandary da kóp edi: búlardyng qatarynda sot ta, ormanshy da, dәriger de bolatyn, alayda solardan Ybyraygha aiyrylmas dos, eng jaqyny - uez nachaliniygi, podpolkovnik Nikolay Karaulov degen kisi edi. Ol Ybyraydy ýnemi ýiine ne týski tamaqqa, ne bir sharaumen qalada qonatyn bolsa, keshki asqa shaqyryp, airyqsha qonaqjaylyq tanytatyn».

Gh.Balghymbaevtyng búl sózin aghartushynyng epistolyarlyq múralary da quattaydy. 1888 jyldyng 31 jeltoqsanynda Y. Altynsarin V. Katarinskiyge jana jyldy ústazdarmen birge uezd basshysynyng ýiinde qarsy alyp otyrghandaryn jazady: «My, vesi uchebnyy personal, projivaishie v Nikolaevskom uezde, sidim teperi u mnogouvajaemogo nashego uezdnogo nachalinika i, posle doljnogo priyveta hozyainu doma, pervyy nash tot s za zdorovie blagodarnyh, chestnyh deyateley po uchebnoy chasti! Da zdravstvuit ludy dobrye y da pomojet Velikiy Bog chelovekam v istinnom smysle etogo slova! Ura!!! (piyshem sie pisimo u uezdnogo nachalinika)».

Aytpaqshy, Gh.Balghymbaev ta osy surette beynelengen dep boljaymyz: ol uezd basshysy N. Karaulovtyng ong qoly jaghynda otyr .Ol alghashqyda Altynsarin ashqan Torghay mektebinde oqidy, keyin 1886 jyly 18 jasynda Or qalasyndaghy múghalimder mektebin bitiredi. Sol jyly әkesi qaytys bolyp, marqúmnyng artyna kónil aitu ýshin Y.Altynsarin búlardyng otbasyna bas súghyp, jas jigitti Qostanaygha múghalimdik qyzmetke shaqyrady. Ol qayghy shegip otyrghan sheshesin kóndirip, múny ózimen birge Qostanaygha alyp keledi. Múnda Altynsarin ony jana uezd ortalyghy Qostanaygha Troiskidegi bastauysh mektepti kóshirip aldyru ýshin arnayy salynghan uezdik mәrtebedegi mektepke (Marhabbat: https://egemen.kz/article/272384-altynsarin-dgane-qostanay-mektebi-onynh-bastau-arnasy-%E2%80%93-troitsk-kezdeysoq-tanh) múghalimdik qyzmetke ornalastyrady.

Ústazynyng ýlken qamqorlyghyn Gh.Balghymbaev adal aqtaghandyghyn bayqaymyz. Ol 1889 jyldyng mamyr aiynyng sonynda Y.Altynsarinnyng nauqasy qatty dendep tósek tartyp jatyp qalghanda, kýni-týni qasynda bolyp, ústazyn baghyp kýtedi, ony songhy sapargha shygharyp salady. Qostanay mektebinen keyin ol Shúbar-Jetiqara, Qarabútaqtaghy bolystyq (auyldyq) mektepterding mengerushisi qyzmetinde bolyp, odan Orynbordan shyghatyn «Turgayskie oblastnye vedomosti» gazetine redaktor, búdan song birshama uaqyt Torghay oblysy oqu inspektory lauazymynyng mindetin atqarady. Basqasha aitsaq, ol Y.Altynsarinnyng ústazdyq, aghartushylyq qyzmettik jolyn qaytalaydy.

«Balghymbaev» degen familiya 1914 jyly A.Baytúrsynúly men M.Dulatúlynyng ýstinen jazylghan domalaq (anonimdik) aryz mazmúnynda «Qazaq» gazetine qoldau kórsetetin sheneunikter qatarynda atalady. Onda ol Orynbor okrugtik sotynyng audarmashysy dep kórsetiledi (Marhabbat: https://abai.kz/post/135310?fbclid=IwAR33n3MOTThly4Yj7I9t0D-JRp7ApmZytCgbgkNlLTCKMvfRHSGXOk-o7lc.)

Jalpy, oqyghan aghayyndy Balghymbaevtar birnesheu bolghan. «Qazaqqa» tileules bolyp jýrgen Balghymbaev Altynsarinnyng shәkirti, onyng janynda ústazdyq etken Ghúbaydolla ma, әlde onyng aghayyny, 1890 jyly Orynbor múghalimder mektebin bitirgen Ahmetbek pe, ol jaghy әzirge belgisiz.

Sóz orayy kelgende aita ketuimiz kerek, Altynsarinnyng aghartushylyq jolyn Torghay uezdik mektebining 1891 jylghy, Orynbor múghalimder mektebining 1895 jylghy týlegi A.Baytúrsynúly naqyshty últtyq mazmúnmen terendetip, tolyqtyryp jalghastyrady. Basty sonar-soqpaghy (bir-birimen satylay sabaqtasqan uezdik – bolystyq mektep jýiesi) Altynsarinnyng inspektorlyq qyzmeti túsynda alghash qalyptasyp, 1892 jyldardan bastap Torghay-Qostanay ónirinde janbyrdan keyingi sanyrauqúlaqtay qaptaghan auyldyq (bolystyq) bastauysh mektepting biri – Aqtóbe uezi Bestamaq bolysynyng №2 auylynda (Marhabbat: https://www.kazpravda.kz/news/ruhani-zhangiru/neizvestnaya-statya-ahmeta-baitursinova) ústazdyq qyzmetten bastaghan Baytúrsynúly qazaq mektepterine oqulyq jazady, arab gharipindegi qazaq әlibiyin dybystyq jýiesine beyimdeydi, bilim salasyn bastauyshtan bastap joghary oqu oryndary deyingi satylaryn terendetip úiymdastyru isine belsene aralasady, auyl mektebi múghaliminen aghartu isining ministri (Narkompros) dәrejesine deyin kóteriledi.

Surette ýsh slavyan nәsildes ústaz túlghalar bederlengen. Olardyng ekeui Y.Altynsarinnyng sol qoly jaghynda, al ýshinshisi N.Karaulovtyng ong jaghynda, Gh.Balghymbaevtan keyingi shetki oryndyqqa oryn tepken. Aghartushynyng sol jaghynda birinshi otyrghan kisi, bizding shamalauymyzsha, Y.Altynsarin turaly estelik jazbalar qaldyrghan, Qostanay orys-qazaq mektebining mengerushisi Fedor Demiyanovich Sokolov. Odan keyin otyrghan jas ústaz – Aleksey Kilyachkov. Ekeui de Qazan qalasyndaghy búratana halyqtargha arnalghan múghalimder seminariyasynyng týlegi, N.Iliminskiyding shәkirtteri. Iliminskiy búlardy Altynsarinnyng súrauy boyynsha Torghay oblysyna jiberedi: «V 1883 godu Altynsarin prosil eshe russkogo uchiytelya dlya Irgizskogo uchilisha. Ya naznachil konchivshego togda kurs v seminariy Fedora Sokolova, russkogo, ocheni sposobnogo molodogo cheloveka. No po kakiym-to peredvijkam uchiyteley Sokolov popal snachala v gor. Troisk v prihodskoe uchiliyshe; vposledstviy on byl zaveduyshim Irgizskim uchiliyshem, a potom – dvuhklassnym Kostanaevskiym. V sleduiyshie goda Altynsarin takje postoyanno obrashalsya ko mne dlya zamesheniya uchiyteliskih vakansiy v dvuhklassnyh uchilishah. Tak v 1888 godu byly naznacheny: Aleksey Kilyachkov v Kostanay y Vasiliy Lapshin v Aktubu».

Sol Sokolovty Y.Altynsarin janadan ashylghan Qostanay mektebine auystyryp alady. N.Iliminskiy qúrastyrghan jinaqta aghartushynyng F.Sokolovqa jazghan 7 haty tirkelgen.

N. Karaulovtyng ong qoly jaghyndaghy Gh.Balghymbaevtan keyingi shetki oryndyqta otyrghan slavyan nәsildes túlghanyng kim ekenin dәlme-dәl belgileu mýmkin emes. Degenmen de, F.Sokolovtyng estelik jazbalaryn múqiyat zerdeley otyryp, olardyng kim ekendigin túspaldap baghamdaugha bolady. Onyng esteliginde sol jaghalaudaghy Qostanay qalasynyng ókpe túsynda Tobyl ózeni ýlken dogha jasap búrylar mýiiske Torghaydan qonys audarghan jyldary qora-qopsymen qosa arnayy salynghan qystauda túratyn Y.Altynsaringe «A.IY.K» jәne «A.V.T.», degen kisimen birge barghandaryn jazady: ...Jil na zimovke, chto v 3-h verstah ot Kostanaya. A.IY.K. y ya pochty ejednevno peshkom pohajivaly k nemu y prelestno vremya provodili, to v besedah, derja v rukah po chashke kumysa, to v chteniiy». Al Altynsarin qaytys bolghanda ol eki kisimen birge aghartushyny songhy sapargha shygharyp salugha barady: «A.V.T., A.IY.K. y ya eshyo priyezjaly na zimovku, chtoby posledniy raz prostitisya s lubimym chelovekom...».

Osy joldardaghy birneshe ret qaytalanatyn «A.IY.K.» degen inisialdyng astarynda Aleksey Kilyachkov (әkesining aty әzirge aiqyndalmady) túr dep esepteymiz. Al «A.V.T.» degen «qysqarylymnyn» artynda qanday túlghanyng túrghanyn anyqtau – aldaghy zertteulerding mindeti. Ol da bilim salasynyng qyzmetkeri ekeni sózsiz. Bәlkim, Balghymbaevtyng qasynda túrghan kisi sol Sokolov ataytyn «A.V.T.»  bolar?

Týiindey kelgende, bir tarihy suretting syry osynday. Onyng jalghasy tabylatynyna senim kәmil.

Almasbek Ábsadyq,

filologiya ghylymdarynyng doktory,
Qostanay  uniyversiytetining professory

Maqala QR BGhM Ghylym komiytetining 2020-2022 jyldargha arnalghan ghylymy granttyq qarjylandyrugha ie bolghan «A.Baytúrsynúlynyng auyldyq mektepterdegi aghartushylyq jәne qoghamdyq qyzmeti (jana arhivtik derekter men ólketanushylyq maghlúmattar, túlghanyng tynnan tabylghan shygharmalary negizinde)» atty Joba negizinde dayyndaldy.

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