Jeksenbi, 25 Shilde 2021
3529 10 pikir 18 Mausym, 2021 saghat 15:22

Qazaqtyng jerine ie bolayyq, desek…

1921 jyly 16 aqpanda Qazaq OAK-ining sheshimimen Aqmola jәne Semey oblystaryn Qazaqstangha qosatyn jәne olardyng basqaru apparatyn jasaqtaytyn Tótenshe ókildigi bar komissiya qúryldy. Komissiyanyng tóraghalyghyna S. Mendeshev, mýsheligine S. Seyfulliyn, Á. Dosov, Gh. Álibekov, P. Zaromskiy kirdi. Tótenshe Komissiya jayynda Ereje bekitildi. Búl jóninde S. Seyfullinge berilgen № 654 mandatta: «Qazaq OAK-i Prezidiumynyng mýshesi S. Seyfullin Aqmola jәne Semey oblystaryn qabyldap alatyn jәne olardy basqaru apparatyn qúratyn Tótenshe – Ókiletti Komissiyanyng mýshesi. S. Seyfullinning qúqy men ókilettiligi Qazaq OAK-ning I sessiyasynda qabyldanghan komissiya turaly Erejege sәikes belgilendi» – delingen. S.Seyfullinning múnday asa jauapty memleketaralyq mәsele sheshetin komissiyagha mýshe boluy kezdeysoq emes.

Sebebi, Qazaq respublikasy aumaghynyng tútastyghyn qalpyna keltirudegi kókeykesti mәseleni sheshude S. Seyfullin búghan deyin respublikalyq Ákimshilik komissiyasynyng qúramynda istegen jәne Jer komissiyasyn basqaryp. tәjiriybeden ótken, Aqmola jәne Semey oblystarynyng tarihi-etnikalyq jәne geografiyalyq jaghdayyn jaqsy biletin, múnyng aldynda osy mәsele jóninde Ortalyqtaghy basshylarmen sóilesip kenes alghan, moynyna alghan isti ayaghyna deyin jetkize alatyn tabandy qayratker bolatyn.

Qúryltay siezining sheshimderine qaramastan, janadan úiymdasyp jatqan Qazaq Respublikasynyng solltýstik-shyghys aumaqtaryna qatysty týitkil mәseleler 1921 jyldyng basynda da sheshile qoymady. Osyghan baylanysty 17 nauryzda Á. Áytiyevting qolymen Mәskeudegi joghary biylik organdaryna Sibirrevkomnyng is-әreketine narazylyq hat joldandy. Sol kezde qazaqtyng bir sýiem jeri ýshin jan sala kýresken qayratkerlerding enbegin kózge elestetu ýshin myna qúpiya qújatqa kóz salayyq.

Qazaqstan Ortalyq atqaru komiytetining (KazSIYK) sonday-aq, Qazaqstan shegarasyn retteu turaly tótenshe komissiyanyng tóraghasy Seyitqaly Mendeshev 1921 jyly 19 nauryzda Petropavldan Mәskeuge joldaghan shúghyl jedelhatynda bylay delingen: «Qúpiya. Mәskeu.Qazaqstan ókildigine. BOAK mýshesi Myrzaghaliyevke. Shegara jónindegi pikirim mynaday: Semey guberniyasy, Ertis jәne Pavlodar audandaryn qaldyru turaly tabandy bolynyz. Al, Omby qalasyn Qazaqstangha qosu jóninde mәsele asqynatyn bolsa, kýshtemey-aq qoyynyz. Bizding ókilimizding Ertiske shyghuy (yaghni, Ertiske qol jetkizu.-Z.T.) turaly úsynysymyzdy ótkizu qajet. Eng bolmasa, Omby uezining qazaghy basym bóligin alyp, Ertiske qol jetkizumen shekteluge bolar. Esinizde bolsyn, búl mәseleni federaldyq biylikting aldyna qoyghanda, búl qazaqtar Omby uezinde qalsa, sózsiz qyrghyngha úshyraydy, biz olardy aman saqtap qalugha kýsh salyp otyrghanymyzdy jetkiziniz» [1].

1921 jyldyng 19 nauryzynda Tótenshe komissiya mýsheleri Petropavlgha keldi, odan keyin Ombyda Sibrevkommen eki jaqtyng 10 adamynan birikken komissiya qúrylyp, 26 nauryzdan 12 mamyrgha deyin júmys jasady. Komissiyanyng tehnikalyq organy retinde komissiya qúramynan buro qúrylyp, oghan jauapty hatshylyqqa Miyheev taghayyndaldy. Komissiyanyng úigharuymen tayau arada qosylatyn eki oblysta kenester saylauyna dayyndyq júmystaryn jýrgizu qaraldy. S.Seyfullinge enbekshi qazaq halqyna kenester saylauyna baylanysty ýndeu qúrastyryp, ony gazet betine jariyalau jәne jemqorlyq pen paraqorlyqty boldyrmau kenestik organdardyng baqylauynda ekenin atap kórsetu tapsyryldy.

1921 jyldyng 12 mamyryna deyingi aralyqta komissiya 6 ret, buro mәjilisi 15 ret jinaldy. Bastapqyda úiymdyq mәselelerde kelisimge kelgenimen, memleketaralyq shekaragha baylanysty mәselede Sibir revkomynyng ókilderi shovinistik, últshyldyq pighyldaryn aiqyn kórsetti. Óte tartysty jaghdayda ótken 1921 jylghy 7 sәuirdegi birikken komissiya mәjilisinde eki jaqtyng mýddeleri qayshy keldi. Mәjiliske Sibirrevkom jaghynan Chuskaev, Miyheev, Dubrovskiy, Temkiyn, Shisha, qazaqtardan: Mendeshev, Seyfulliyn, Zaromskiy, Dosov, Álibekov, Sergeev, Áytiyev, Popov qatysty.

Sovet ókimetining alghashqy ailarynda Qazaqstangha tiyesili jerlerdi týgendegende, Respublika biyligining nazarynda búrynghy Omby oblysy da bolghanyn osydan kóremiz.

Omby uezinin jeri HH ghasyrdyng basynda basqalarmen salystyrghanda shaghyn boldy, yaghny 41049 sharshy shaqyrym. Múnyng 77 prosenti qazaqtardyng ýlesinde ekeni kórsetilgen [2].Búl uezinde búrynghy Kókshetau okruginin: Baghy-Baghysh, Aqty-Móntik, Sary-Qarauyl bolystarynan, Aqmola oblysynyn: Tóleke-Qúrsary -Kerey, Malay-Baqtybay-Qúrsary-Kerey, Qúlatay-Qypshaq, Qanjyghaly bolysynyng 65 shanyraghy jәne Bayanauyl okrugindegi qanjyghalynyng 40 týtini qosyldy.

Omby uezining negizgi halqy Orta Jýzding arghyn, qypshaq jәne kerey taypalarynyng qazaqtary edi.

Oqyrmandargha týsinikti bolu ýshin qazaqtardyng qauqary kemip, ata qonysynan yghystyrylyp, ónsheng shóleyt qyrgha qonystana bastaghany, әsirese, dәl osy kez ekendigin atap ketkimiz keledi. Jogharydaghy derekterde «qazaqtargha tiyesili» dep tirkelgen jerler aumaghy jaghynan óte kóp kóringenimen, adamdardyng tirshilik-sharuashylyghyna qolaysyz, qúnarsyz jerler bolatyn. Onyng bir ghana aighaghyn Ertis, Esil, Núra, Tobyl ózenderining eki jaghalauyndaghy topyraghy qúnarly, suly-nuly aimaqtardaghy jer-qonys ataularynyng arasynda basqa tildegisi basym, qazaqshasynyng osy uaqytqa deyin siyrek ekendiginen-aq biluge bolady. Múnday shúrayly jerlerdi basyp alghan «qonystanushylar» keyin daugha qalmas ýshin sol jerlerdi óz qalauynsha tezirek orysshalap, «shoqyndyryp» jibergen.

Kerisinshe, egin shyqpaytyn, tastaq, suy sorang nemese ashy, qyrgha qaray qazaqsha ataular kóbeye beredi. Búl jaghday әli de sol kýiinde, ózgermesten saqtalyp otyr. Sebebi, búl jerlerdi «europalyq últ ókilderi» mekendep kelgen.

Kóp últty imperiyagha ainalghan Resey HÝIII ghasyrdyng ayaghynda, Abylay han dýniyeden ótisimen-aq, qazaq qoghamyn, qazaq elin memlekettik tútastyghynan aiyru, sol arqyly qazaq jerine basa-kóktep enu sayasatyn jýieli jәne maqsatty týrde jýrgizdi. Uaqyty keldi-au degende 1822 jәne 1868 jylghy reformalar nәtiyjesinde Resey ókimeti qazaq dalasynda әskeriy-feodaldyq basqaru jýiesin ornatty.

Sonyng saldarynan ózin-ózi qorghau qabiletinen aiyrylghan qazaq qoghamy Resey imperiyasynyng ekspansiyalyq sayasatyna jalpyúlttyq dengeyde qarsylyq kórsete almady. Onyng mәnisin Abay atamyz aityp ketkendey, «Bas-basyna by bolghan ónsheng qiqym...», «Arqagha úlyq qaqqangha mәz bolghan paraqor bolystar...» biylikke kelgen bolatyn. Sóitip, qazaq halqy ghasyrlar boyy qan tógip, qorghap kelgen jerining eng qúnarly, sharuashylyqqa qolayly bóliginen birte-birte aiyryldy. Patsha әkimshiligi tәuir jerlerdi «artyq jer», «kóshpeli jәne otyryqshy norma», «jerge ornalastyru» siyaqty әdisterdi qoldanyp, tartyp aldy [3].

Álbette, búl kezdeysoqtyq emes edi. Resey patshalyghynyng birtindep, memlekettik dengeyde jýrgizgen otarlyq sayasatynyng nәtiyjesi osynday. Tipti, bertin kele, HH ghasyrdyng basynda da Qazaqstannyng barlyq aimaqtaryndaghy qúnarly jerlerdi týgelge derlik qazaqtardan tartyp alghannan keyin de, búl mәselege shekteu jasalmady. Múnyng bәri jer-su ataularynyng ózgerip, ejelgi iyelerine jat boluyna әkep soqty.

1907 jyly Peterburgte qazaqtardyng jer mәselesi boyynsha narazylyq aryzdary qaralghanda, Resey eginshilik departamentining diyrektory Krukov óz bayandamasynda myna sózderdi aitqany tarihtan belgili: «Amerikalyqtar ýndisterdi tughan jerinen shól jәne shóleyt jerlerge quyp, qanday sayasat jýrgizse, bizde qazaqtargha sonday sayasat ústanuymyz kerek» [4].

Qazaqstannyng soltýstik aimaghynyng geografiyalyq jaghdayy men mekendegen halyqtyng últtyq qúramyna baylanysty búl ónirde jer-su attarynyng orynsyz ózgeriske týsuining tarihy mýlde әriden bastalatynyn aittyq. Resey otarshylyghymen betpe-bet kelgen ónirdegi qazaqtardyng tili men diline, últtyq salt-sanasyna núqsan keltire otyryp, jergilikti halyqty marginaldyq sanadaghy tobyrgha ainaldyru eki jarym ghasyr boyy iym-periyalyq sayasat negizinde jýieli týrde jýrgizildi.

Zertteushi V.N. Alekseenkonyng jinaghan derekteri boyynsha 1870-1906 jyldar arasynda, yaghny 36 jyl boyy Qyr ólkesine Reseyden auyp kelgender sany 521 myng adam bolsa, Stolypin reformasy dep atalatyn 1906-1914 jyldarda ghana 714 myng adam qonys audarghan...Osylaysha, 1910 jyldyng ózinde Aqmola oblysyna Ekaterinoslav, Poltava, Samara, Harikov Herson guberniyalarynan eki jýz mynday qarashekpen kóship keldi. 917 jylghy memleekettik mәlimet boyynsha Aqmola oblysynda slavyan nәsildi júrtshylyq 882 myng 300 ge jetken eken [5].

Qonys audarushylar qazaq jerine ayaq basysymen, sol jerge óz tilinde at qoyatyn. Sóitip, ejelgi Ashykól, Túshykólder – Gorikoe, Presnoe bolyp shygha keldi.

Mysaly, qazirgi Mamlut audanynyng ortalyghy Mamlutka qalasynyng atauy jóninde mynaday maghlúmattar anyqtaldy.

Resey imperiyasynyng 1822 jylghy «Sibir qazaqtary jónindegi» Jarghy (Speranskiy jarghysy) boyynsha Qazaqstannyng soltýstik ónirindegi әkimshilik ózgeristerding zandy jalghasy retinde 1824 jyly 29-sәuirde Kókshetau syrtqy okrugi qúrylghanyn aittyq. Okrug nemese duan qúramyna kiretin qazaqtar aldymen «Aq patshagha» adaldyq antyn beruge tiyis boldy. Ol ýshin orys әkimshiligining ókilderi Kókshetaugha ózderimen birge birneshe tatar mollasyn ala kelgen. Olardyng ishinde búl ónirmen Abylay zamanynan búrynnan qarym-qatynasy bar, mal saudasymen ainalysatyn Usman Mәulitov degen molla da bolghan. Ol Jylghara Baytoqinning «tamyry», yaghny jaqsy syilasqan dosy eken.

Kókshetau duanynyng agha súltany Ghúbaydolla Uәlihanúly Usman mollany bala oqytugha shaqyryp, qonys beruge uaghdalasady. Sol Usman Mәulitov 1830 jylghy nauryzda Rysay-atyghay bolysynyng aumaghyna kóship keledi. Oghan Esil ózenining jaghasynda, Novonikolisk redutynan qyryq shaqyrym jerdegi «Tasybek toghayy» degen jerden ýy salugha, Qaraghash degen jerden (Kindikti, Taldykól, Jaltyrkól manayy) pishen dayyndaugha jer kesilip beriledi [6].

Alghashqy 4 jylda Mәulitovter ýsh ýy salyp alady. Iri qara ósirip, kәsippen ainalysa bastaydy. Usman mektebinde qazaqtyng elu balasy dәris alady. Búl eldi mekenning salynuyna baylanysty arhiv qújattarynda el aghasy Shana (nemese Shona), onyng inileri Sýiik jәne Mәten Onyshevtar, Kәmәl Júmatay, Tabyldy Tasybekov degen adamdardyng esimderi atalady. (Qazir de úrpaqtary bolugha tiyis). Tasybek toghayynan alty shaqyrym jerde Shanyraq qarasu degen kól aty kezdesedi.

Jyldar ótip, búl eldi mekenning aty Mәulit, orysshasy Mamlutka bolyp ózgerip ketken.

Jer-su atyn ózgertu – jay әuesqoylyq emes, sol manayda búryn eshqanday halyq mekendemegen, demek, iyesiz jerge qazyq qaghugha bolady degen jymysqy sayasatpen әdeyi jasalghan shara ekeni mәlim. Jәne múnday at qoy nemese bayyrghy qazaqy ataulardy ózgertu eshqashan toqtamastan, birte-birte jýrgizilip keldi. Búghan, sonymen qatar, qazaqy ataulardyng ózining transkripsiyasyn ózgertip, adam tanymastay qalypqa týsirgendikti de qosu kerek (Mysaly: Shabaqty – Chebashie, Terenkól – Torangul, Toqysh – Tokushino, Asan – Asanovo t.s.s).

M. Speranskiyding jobasy qazaqtyng keng dalasyn bir ghana Reseyding bodandyghyna týbegeyli kóshiru jospary bolatyn. Orta Jýzding hany Uәly Abylayúlynyng qazasyn sәti kelgen jaghday dep eseptep, Resey imperiyasy Qazaqstandaghy handyq biylikti mýlde joyyp jiberdi.

Omby dep atalatyn jana oblys qúrylghanda, «Sibir qazaqtarynyng Jarghysy» degen qújat ómirge keldi. Otarlau sayasatynyng bilgir mamandarynyng biri Korf búl jospar jóninde kezinde bylay dep jazghan bolatyn:

«Qazaq dalasyn osy bir ghana qújat arqyly beybit jolmen basyp aludyng manyzy óz kezinde qalay baghalansa da, tarihy túrghyda búl ózi asa zor manyzdy fakt bolatyn» [7].

Al, Speranskiy Kapsevichke jazghan qúpiya hatynda óz josparynyng ishki syryn bylaysha ashqan:

«Qazaq dalasyna qaray basqan әrbir qadamymyz batyldyq bolyp kórinetini ras. Biraq, Jarghyda búl qadamdar – maqsat, týpki baghyt, betalysymyzdy týzep alu túrghysynda kórsetilgen. Bәlkim, búl maqsatqa jarty ghasyr ótkennen keyin jetermiz. Ázirshe senimsizdeu, bayau jyljyp kele jatsaq ta, aiqyn josparymyz bar, baghytymyz dúrys. Jergilikti jaghdaylardyng anysyn andyp, qolayly sәtti qalt jiberip almasaq bolghany.

Osylaysha, Qyr ólkesine qaray jyljyp, azamattyq ózgeristerdi («jer-su atauyn ózgertudi» degen sóz.-Z.T.) qazaq arasyna birte-birte engizip otyru – Glazenap marqúmnyng ýshinshi shekara shebin tartu jónindegi úsynysyna qaraghanda, eng qolayly әdis» [8].

Qazaq jerlerine qaray jyljudyng ekinshi kezeni Qyr ólkesining general-gubernatory H.Gasforttyng kezinde, 1854 jyly Omby oblysy taratylyp, Aqmola jәne Semey oblystarynyng qúryluy edi. Sóitip, Qazaqstannyng úlan-baytaq soltýstik, shyghys jәne ortalyq aimaqtary nemese Orta Jýzding jeri Resey imperiyasynyng qarauyna súrausyz, joqtausyz ótip jatty.

«Russkiy invaliyd» gazetining 1857 jylghy 12-qarashadaghy sanynda «Ombydan hat» degen taqyryppen jazghan avtor, quanyshyn jasyra almay bylay dep jazypty:

«Janadan eki oblys qúryluyna baylanysty «qazaq jerleri», «Orta Jýz ben Resey shekarasy» degen týsinikter mýlde joyyldy. Eshbir shyghynsyz, әure-sarsansyz, qauyrsyn qalamnyng úshymen bir-aq syzyp, osynau ýlken elding aumaghyn imperiya shegine engizilip, ýzildi-kesildi qosyp aldyq» [9].

Al, sosialistik iydeyany tu etken kenes ýkimeti totalitarlyq zorlau, qinau, jazyqsyz jazalaudy ómirge endiru arqyly bir qalypqa týsirilgen «ýiretindi» mentaliytetti qalyptastyrudyng nәtiyjesinde jana ataular sayasatyn odan әri jalghastyrdy. Osy arqyly halyqtyng tarihy jadynyng bir salasy retinde qalyptasqan túraqty tarihy últtyq úghymyna ainalghan eldi meken, jer ataularyn zorlyqpen ózgertip, odan qol ýzdirdi [10].

Kenestik dәuirde kolhozdastyru, tyng iygeru nauqandaryna baylanysty ónirding bayyrghy eldi mekenderining ataulary ayausyz ózgertilgenin aityp jetkizu mýmkin emes. Oghan qosa qyzyl imperiyanyng sayasatyna say, iydeologiya mýddesine oray eshqanday mәni joq, danghaza qazaqsha ataular engizildi. «Jana túrmys», «Alghabas», «Jana talap», «Janalyq», «Ortalyq», «Birlik», «Mәdeniyet» t.b. ataular búrynghy tarihy toponimikany el sanasynan óshirdi, basqasy jappay oryssha bolyp ketti.

Sonymen birge kommunistik partiya men ýkimetting basshylarynyng attary mәngi este qaldyrugha layyq dep tanylghanyn bilemiz. Olardyng arasynda, tipti aqylgha syimaytyndary da bar. Bir ghana mysal, Petropavldan 40 shaqyrym jerde Smirnov eldi mekenining búrynghy aty «Dәrmen», yaghny stansiyanyng aty da solay atalmaq eken. 1921-22 jyldary Qazaqstannan tartyp alynghan astyq pen etti Reseyding ortalyq aimaqtaryna jedel jetkizu ýshin Kókshetaugha temirjol tartu júmysyn azyq-týlik halyq komissarynyng orynbasary Smirnov degen basqarypty. «Dәrmen» atyn ózgertip, Smirnovtyng atyn berudi «enbekshiler jalynyp súraghan son» onyng aty qoyylypty...

Al, ekinshi bir dolbar, 1917 jylghy tónkeriske baylanysty oqighalardyng salqynymen, Kenes biyligin ornatu ýshin Ombyda qúrylghan Sibir revolusiyalyq komiytetining tóraghasy Smirnov degen bolghany da shyndyq. Áyteuir halyqtyng jadynda saqtalmaghan, jyl ótken sayyn kýngirt tartyp kele jatqan esim tural: kim, nege, qashan? degen súraqtar kóp. Osy bir ghana faktining ózi onomastika mәselesining jenil-jelpi, jýre sóilep, bas shúlghitynday onay emestigin kórsetedi.

Múny Soltýstik Qazaqstan oblysynyng әkimshilik-aumaqtyq bólinisining ózgeru tarihynan aiqyn kóruge bolady. Mysaly: 1928 jylghy 3 qyrkýiekte Býkilodaqtyq Ortalyq atqaru komiytetining «Bolystyq bólinisterdi joyyp, audandar jýiesin engizu turaly» qaulysyna sәikes, Qazaq avtonomiyaly sovettik sosialistik respublikasynyng Ortalyq atqaru komiytetining 1928 jylghy 17 qantarda bolghan ekinshi sessiyasynda Qyzyljar okrugi qúryldy. Búl turaly qaulyda jana okrugke Aqmola guberniyasynyng Petropavl uezining aumaghy tolyq qamtylyp, oghan Atbasar men Kókshetau uezderining keybir bolystaryn qosylghanyp, sóitip, okrug aumaghynda barlyghy 21 audan bolghany aitylghan.

Olardyng ishinde Aryqbalyq audany (ortalyghy Aryqbalyq selosy), Beynetqor audany (ortalyghy Sholaq Dosjan auyly), Bulaev audany (ortalyghy Bulaev selosy), Kókshetau audany (ortalyghy-Kókshetau qalasy), Krasnoarmeysk audany (ortalyghy –Novo-Suhotino selosy), Lenin audany (ortalyghy –Yavlenka selosy), Presnov audany (ortalyghy –Presnovka selosy), Ruzaev audany (ortalyghy – Ruzaev selosy), Tónkeris audany (ortalyghy – Maybalyq selosy), Shuchinsk audany (ortalyghy Shuchie selosy), Enbekshilder audany (ortalyghy Kazgorodok selosy) boldy.

Eskerte ketetin jaghday sol, búryn Qyzyljar atalyp kelgen әkimshilik-aumaqtyq birlik dәl sol 1928 jyldyng mamyr aiynyng 10-júldyzynda Petropavl uezi dep ózgertilgen. Búl sheshimdi qabyldaghan da Respublikanyng ortalyq atqaru komiyteti. Osydan keyin eki jylgha tolmay, Mәskeudegi ortalyq biylik, dәlirek aitqanda, Býkilodaqtyq atqaru komiyteti Qazaqstannyng әkimshilik-aumaqtyq jana bólinisin 1930 jylghy 23 shildede qayta bekitti. Búl qauly boyynsha okrugter, әlbette, olardyng ishinde Petropavl okrugi de bar, taratylyp, irilendirilip,janadan qúrylghan audandar Respublika ortalyghyna tikeley baghynatyn boldy.

HIH ghasyrdaghy geografiyalyq kartada «Novoyavlennoe» degen ataumen tanbalanghan qazirgi Yavlenka selosynyng tarihyna týsinik bere ketken artyq bolmas. HiH ghasyrda  jana qonystanushy jat júrttyq kelimsekter, qazaqtardy quyp shyghyp,  bolashaq mekenine at qoyghanda, yrym kórip hristian dinining Bibliya anyzdaryn basshylyqqa alghany mәlim. Sol anyzdyng birinde Ghaysa payghambar qayta tirilip kelip, ýmmeterimen qauyshqan sәt qasiyetti sanalghan. Sondyqtan da qazaq dalasynyng bir púshpaghynda, erke Esilding jaghasynan oiyp alghan, júmaqqa belnisiz  qútty mekenin qazaqsha «Ghaysa payghambardyng qayta oraluy»,nemese oryssha «Novoe yavlenie Iususa Hrista» degen tórt sózdi yqshamday qysqarta berip, tipti sol diny týsinikting qasiyetti astaryn týsinbey, әuelgi manyzyn úmytqan úrpaqtar nemkettileu etip, «Yavlenka» atay salghanyn eske salamyz. Biletinderding aituynsha búl meken Baytoqa, odan Jylghara bolsa,sol Jylgharanyng Músa degen úlynyng qystauy, ne kýzegi  bosa kerek. Sondyqtan key uaqytta oryssha «Musiyn» degendi qazaqshalap, «Mýsin» dep atapty degendi qúlaq shaldy. Jeri qútty, ornalasu jaghdayy tynys-tirshilikke qolayly osy bir tústa Soltýstik Qazaqstan oblysynyng Lenin atyn iyelengen, keyin Esil ózenining atymen atalghan audan qúrylghaly da ne zaman. Biraq, Yavlenka atauy sol kýii, otarshylyq zamannyng zarly eskertkishindey, audan ortalyghynyng atyn iyemdenip túr. Áldekimderding salaqtyghynan,  audan aty ózgergende, onyng ortalyghyna da tarihy atauyn qaytaru eskerilmegen.

Dәl osynday,  Tәuelsizdik jyldarynda  bir sauapty istin  basyn bastap ayaghyna jetkizbey qaldyrghan jaydy eske salayyn. Mysaly, Maghjan Júmabaydyn  aty berilgen audannyng ortalyghy Bulaevo, Ghabit Mýrepov bolyp qayta atalghan audannyng ortalyghy Novoishiym, Shal aqynnyng atymen atalatyn audannyng ortalyghy Sergeev, Aqqayyng dep әp-әdemi at berilgen audannyng ortalyghy Smirnovo dep, basqa iri-iri eldi mekenderding atauynda búrynghy kazak-orystardyng esimderi bәri-bir saqtalyp qalghany kimdi de bolsa, oilandyrghanday. Álde, Qazaqstannyng Tәuelsizdigi degen asyl úghymdy tolyq týsinbegendik pe eken? Osy orayda, oigha kelgen myna pikirimizdi de ortagha salsaq qalay bolady?

Qazaqstan Preziydenti Qasym-Jomart Toqaev «Sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandaryn tolyq aqtau turaly jana Jarlyq shygharyp, eldi bir silkindirip qoydy. Múnday bastama kerek-aq edi. Hosh! Endi, dәl osnday ekinshi  bir: «Qazaqstan aumaghyndaghy patshalyq-otarlau sayasatyn  jәne nasihattaytyn ataulardy qayta qarau turaly»  Jarlyq shygharyp, Úly dala eshkimning otary emes,  Qazaqastan dýnieauy jәne  ruhany baghynyshtylyqtan qútylghanqútylghan, múnda  Ana tiline, Tarihyna,  salt-dәstýrlerine, Mәdeniyeti men Ádebiyetine adal úrpaq  30 jyl boyy Tәuelsiz, Tatulyq pen Yntymaq ayasynda  ómir sýrip jatqanyn әlemge  pash etse degen tilek bar. Ruhany janghyruymyzdyng shyn maghynasy men mazmúny osy bolar edi.  

1936 jylghy 23 qazanda Vaguliyn, Glubokoe, Dolmatov, 1-Dubroviyn, Krasnoyarsk, Kustovsk, Lebedkov, Nalobiyn, Sivkov, Sokolov, Sumskiy selisovetterin Mamlut audanynan alynyp,Sokolov audanynyng qúramyna beru turaly. Qazaq OAK Tóralqasynyng qaulysy jaryq kórdi [1]. 1937 jylghy 25 mausymda Stalin selisovetin taratu turaly Mamlut auatkomynyng sheshimi qabyldandy [2].

9 mausym 1940 j. Soltýstik Qazaqstan oblysy Mamlut audanyndaghy Omby temirjolyna qarasty Mamlut stansiyasy manyndaghy eldi mekenderdi júmysshy poselkeleri qataryna jatqyzyp, Mamlut selolyq sovetin Mamlut júmysshy-poselkelik soveti etip qayta qúru jәne ony Mamlut audandyqsovetine baghyndyru turaly.

1935 jylghy aqpannyng 10-júldyzynda Qaraghandy oblystyq atqaru komiytetiortalyghy Yavlenka selosy bolatyn Lenin audanynyng jana әkimshilik-aumaqtyq bólinisin ózining qaulysymen myna qúramda bekitu turaly bekitti: Aleksandrov, Birlik, Zagradov, Ivano-Pavlov, Ivano-Petrov, Iliinskiy, Qaraghash, Krasnoarmeysk, Leonidov, Letovoka, Malinovka, Janaózen, Petrov, Pokrov, Sovet, Taranguliskiy, Túnghiyq, Yavlenka, Yasnov selolyq sovetteri.

Osy tizimdegi «Tarangul» kól atauy eken.Zer sala qarap, bayyppen kónil audarghan adam, Qazaqstannyng teriskeyinde toranghy aghashynyng óspeytinen biledi-au. Jersinbegen, óspeytin ósimdikting atyn atam qazaq jer-sugha bermeydi. Demek, búl kóldin, tiyisinshe eldi mekenning aty sol jerdegi kólge tikeley qatysty «Terenkól» degendi bildirse kerek. Kelimsekterding tili kelmegen son, shúbarlanyp, tipti mýlde týsiniksiz bolyp ózgergen gidronimning taghdyry osynday. Ayta berse, uaqyt ótken sayyn shatysyp-bytysyp jýrgen  toponimder jalghyz búl emes. Tәuelsizdik alyp, es jiyp, osynday orynsyz búrmalaulardy dúrystau qajettigi tudy. Halyqtyng qazynasy, ghasyrlar boyy saqtalghan zerdesi bolyp tabylatyn jer-su atauyn qúrmettep, taza saqtay bilsek, qanday jaqsy. Osy oblystaghy toponimderge baylanysty aghattyqtar birneshe mәrte týzetilude, biraq, kimnen qorqatynymyz belgisiz, bayaulyq, jaltaqtyq basym..

Oblys ortalyghymen qanattasyp, sabaqtasyp jatqan eldi mekenderdi búzyp aitu, qate jazugha baylanystybaylanysty әkimshilik-aumaqtyq ózgerister jii bolyp jatatyny bayqalady. Búl turasynda ortalyghy Mәulit selosy bolyp otyrghan    Mәulit   audanynmysalgha keltiruge bolady. Búl toponimning Mamlut emes,HÝIII ghasyrda ómir sýrgen jerlesimiz, Mәulit Usmanov degen adamnyng atymen baylanysty ekeni tarihiy-tanymdyq derektýrindeosy kitapta arnayy aitylghandyqtan, oghan toqtalmaugha bolady.

Alayda, býkil qújattargha jazylyp, úrpaqtar sanasyna sinip ketken oryssha qalpynda «Mamlutka», qazaqsha Mamlut atauy resmy týrde týzetilmegendikten, oryssha-qazaqsha   jazyluyn sol kýiinde qaldyrudan basqa laj joq. Ár nәrse, óz kezeginde retin tappaq.Olay bolsa, Mamlut audanynyng sol 1935 jylghy jana әkimshilik-aumaqtyq bólinisi myna qúramda bolghanyn habarlaumen shektelu kerek.

Ortalyghy – Mamlut selosy, nemese auyly. Onyng qarauyndaBelovo, Vagulinskiy, Voskresenov, Glubokoe,1-Dubrovinskiy, 2-Dubrovinskiy, Dolmatov, Kalugiyn, Kovali, Kustov, Krasnoyarsk, Lebedkov, Mamlut, Mihaylov, Nalobiyn, Senjar, Sivkov, Slivninskiy, Sokolov, Stanovoy sovhoz, Sumskiy, Shuchinskiy selolyq sovetteri.

Ortalyghy Balkashin selosy bolatyn Molotov audanynyng jana әkimshilik-aumaqtyq bólinisin myna qúramda bekitu turaly. Balkashiyn, Balkashin sovhoz, Bastremov, Bogorodskiy, Bogoslovskiy, Vasiliev, Veselov, Vladimirov, Dorogiyn, Kamenskiy, Qalmaqkól, Leniyn, Mihaylov, Maksimov, Novogorodskiy, Novo-Romanovskiy, Novo-Dubrovinskiy, Novo-Nikoliskiy, Novo-Kronshtadtskiy, Preobrajenskiy, Sandyqtau, Tuchnin selolyq sovetteri. Qaraghandy oblystyq atqaru komiytetining qaulysy1935 jyly 10 aqpanda jaryq kórdi.

Sol kýniPetropavl audany da qúrylyp,jana әkimshilik-aumaqtyq bólinisin myna qúramda bekitildi: OrtalyghyPetropal qalasy, oghan qaraytyndar Arhangelisk, Beskól,Krivozyornyi, Novo-Kamenskiy, Novo-Pavlovskiy, Peterfelid, Ploskiy selolyq sovetteri. Qaraghandy oblystyq atqaru komiytetining qaulysy [3].

Ortalyghy Poludin selosy bolatyn Poludin audanynyng jana әkimshilik-aumaqtyq bólinisin myna qúramda 1935 jylghy 10 aqpanda bekitilgen: Bugrov, Ganikiyn, 1-Kamyshlov, Leniyn, Metlishiyn, Nikolaev, Novo-Bytovskiy, Novo-Georgiyevskiy, Novo-Nikoliskiy, Poludiyn, Raevskiy, Ryavkinskiy, Skvorsov, Sovet, Toqushy, Toqushy  sovhoz, Enbekshilder selolyq sovetteri. Qaraghandy oblystyq atqaru komiytetining qaulysy.

Oblystyng ózinin, onyng audandary men salolyq, auyldyq sovetterining әkimshilik-aumaqtyq bólinisining tarihyna qarap, otyrsaq, olardyng әkimshilik-aumaqtyq birlik retinde1935 jyl boyy toqtamay, birinen keyin biri qalyptasqanyn bayqaugha bolady.

Aytalyq, 10 aqpanda Ayymjan, Bayan, Jarqyn, Qaraqamys,Maybalyq, Nikolaev, Orman, Spas selisovetterin  Tónkeris audanynan alyp, Presnov audanyna beru turaly Qaraghandy oblystyq atqaru komiytetining qaulysy shyqty.

Sol jyldyng basynda ortalyghynaPresnov selosy belgilenip qúrylghanPresnov audanynakórshi Tónkeris audanynan segizselolyq jәne auyldyq sovet qosylyp, jana әkimshilik-aumaqtyq bólinisi bylaysha bekitildi: Ayymjan, Arhangelisk, Bayan, Blagoveshenka, Ekaterinovka, Jarqyn, Jeleziyn, Kazansk, Qaraqamys, Kladbinsk, Lapushiyn, Maybalyq, Nikolaev, Novorybinsk, Oliga, Orman, Ostrovskiy, Petrovka, Presnov, Rojdestvenskiy, Svyatoduhovka, Spas, Troisk selisovetteri.Tiyisinshejer jaghdayyna, halyqtyng әleumettik túrmysy men halyq sharuashylyghynyng mýddesine qaray, Presnov audanynan 11 selolyq sovetti bólipalyp, Presnogorikov audanyna beru turaly Qaraghandy oblystyq atqaru komiytetining qaulysy shyqty. Sonday-aq, Tónkeris audanynyng bes seliauylsoveti Presnogorikov audanyna qosyldy. 1940 jylghy 30 qarashada Qazaq SSR Jogharghy Soveti PrezidiumynynSoltýstik Qazaqstan oblysy Presnov audanyndaghy Budenyy et-sýt sovhozyn Ostrovskiy selisovetining әkimshilik qamtuyna beru turaly jarlyghy shyqty.

Nәtiyjesinde ortalyghy Presnogorikov selosy bolatyn Presnogorikov audanynyng jana әkimshilik-aumaqtyq bólinisin myna tәrtiptebekitilgeni bayqalady:Evgeniev, Eltay, Isaev, Kaban, Kazansk, Kamyshlovskiy, Ksenievskiy, Krutoyar, Makariev, Markov, Peschan, Petropavlov sovhoz, Pochinov, Presnogorikov, Presnoredut, Ryasskiy, Sibiri, Sreten, Fyodorov selisovetteri.

Qarap otyrsanyz, búl jerde «sayasatshyl, tipti stalinshil, hrushevshil, brejnevshil», Ahmet Baytúrsynov aitatyn «shala pisken» atqaminer kommunist atalarymyzdyng jenil-jelten, saldyr-salaq, qazaq minezdi  úranshyl, aighayshyl «últtyq basshylarymyzdyn» is-әreketining nәtiyjesi osynday bolghan. Áytpese, «Áy, qaraghym-au, bylay atasaq qaytedi» deuge jaramaghandyghyn kózimiz kórdi, әli kórip kelemiz. Ózgeni bylay qoyghanda, dәl HHI ghasyrda,  Tәuelsizdik jaghdayynda Qaraghandyda «Drevniy Riym», taghy bir jerde «Aram» restorandarynyng bar ekenin qylmys bolghan song ghana, baspasózden  bilip qaldyq.

Ýlken sauda ornynyn, oiyn-sauyq oshaqtarynyng aty jóninde mәsele qozghalghanda, neshe týrli kerauyz «biznesmennin» aitqanyna kónip, «qazaqshasy qayda», dep, bir auyz sóz aita almaytyn sheneunikter bar. Eppen týsindirip, «Siz Qazaqsanda túrasyz  ghoy,  sol qazaq jerinen nәpaqa tauyp otyrsyz. Qazaqsha bir dúrys at qoyayyq» dep aitsaq, uyalghannan tyndar edi.  Sony aitu ýshin shetelden oqyp keluding qajeti joq shyghar, az ghana ar-namysy bolsa, jetkilikti dep oilaymyn. Osyny eskermegendikten, búryn ekenderding atauy desek, qazir qaladaghy shimay-shatpaq, qazaqsha emes ataular býkil Qazaqstannyng beynesin búzyp, ózinizding qay elde túratynynyzdan janyltady. Osy mәseleni de, auzynyng duasy bar bireu, tapsyryp qoysa eken. Sebebi, bizde bәri núsqaumen, tapsyrmamen, baghdarlamamen atqarylady. Óz betinshe ynta kórsetip, derbes qimyl-әreket jasau degen joq.

Qazaqtyng jerine ie bolayyq. Ie bolu degen qaru kezenip, shegara kýzeteyik degen ghana emes. Jana tughan nәreste kózimen  sәnin kórip, qúlaghymen atyn estip, qazaqsha bolsa, «e, mynau әkesnin, sheshemning jeri, sol jerde túrghan jandy-jansyz mýkammal  ata-babalarymyzdanqalghan múra ekendigin úghyp óssin. Qazaqy tәrbie alghan bala ghana qazaq jerine múrager bolugha layyq. Al, kýndiz-týni kórgeni men estigeni «skii» bolghan balagha senbeymin.

Zarqyn Tayshybay, Qazaqstannyng enbek sinirgenn qayratkeri,

Joghary mektep Últtyq ghylym akademiyasynyng akademiygi.

Paydalanghan әdebiyetter:
1. SQOMM, 43-qor,1-tizbe,7-is,1-paraq.
2. Rossiya. Polnoe geograficheskoe opisanie nashego Otechestva. T. 18. Kirgizskiy kray. SPb. 1903, S.381.)
3. Qoygeldiyev M. Alash qozghalysy. A., 1995, 65-75-better.
4. Vaganov A. Zemelinaya politika sarskogo praviytelistva v Kazahstane (1907-1914)// Istoricheskie zapiski, M., 1950, №31, S.66.
5. Alekseenko V.N. Naselenie dorevolusionnogo Kazahstana (chislennosti, razmasheniye, sostav 1870-1614 gg.). Almaty, 1981, S.55).
6. Soltýstik Qazaqstan oblystyq memlekettik múraghaty – SQO MM. 158-qor, 1-tizbe, 69-is, 9-bet.
7. Graf Speranskiyding ómiri. SPb., 1861, T.II., 142-bet.
8. Graf Speranskiyding ómiri. SPb., 1861, T.II., 247-bet.
9. Býrbaev T. Últ mentaliyteti. Astana, 2001, 26-bet.
10. Myrzahmetúly M. Qazaq toponimderi men antroponimderi.// Onomastika: býgini men bolashaghy. Astana, 2002, 20-bet.

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