Jeksenbi, 26 Mausym 2022
Bilgenge marjan 6851 20 pikir 16 Mausym, 2021 saghat 11:20

Qargha boyly Qaztughan kim?

Qaztughan turaly «Bes ghasyr jyrlaydy» kitabynda: «Qazaq әdebiyeti tólbasylarynyng biri – Qaztughan jyrau Sýiinishúlynyng shamamen XV ghasyrdyng 20-30 jyldarynda Edil boyynda, qazirgi Astrahani oblysynyng Krasnyy Yar qalasynyng manynda tuady. ... XV ghasyrdyng úzyna boyyna sozylghan búlghaq kezinde onyng kimderdi jaqtaghany, ne istegeni belgisiz. Tek ghasyrdyng ekinshi jartysynda óz qarauyndaghy rularymen birge Edilden auyp, Qazaq Ordasynyng qúramyna ótkendigin bilemiz», - deydi (Bes ghasyr jyrlaydy. Almaty, Jazushy, 1989, 1 tom, 27 bet, Qúrastyrushylar: M.Maghauiyn, M.Baydildaev).

Al, endi noghaylar shygharghan «Yyr iyesi men ediym» kitabynda Qaztughan turaly bylay deydi: «Kazy-Tuvgan Suiyinish uly XVII-inshy oimirdini aivleti. Onyni atasy Suiyinish Seiyt-Abdulla uly aivelde Ashtarhan nogaylarynnan bolyp, soni oizinini uilisy miynen Edilden Kobanga koishken.

...Kazy- Tuvgan oisip etkende Ashtarhan nogaylaryn djungar baskynshylardan bosatar uishin koip kuiresken» («Yyr iyesi men ediym» Poeziya yyiyntyghy. Sost. Kulunchakova B. Mahachkala: GU «Dagestanskoe knijnoe izdatelistvo», 2009, str. 73). Búl kitapta noghaydyng XV-inshi hәm HH ghasyr aralyghynda jasaghan noghay shayyrlarynyng shygharmalary jinaq bop berilgen. Kitaptaghy materialdardy jinaghan, belgili noghay ghalymy –  Ashim sheyh-Aly uly (Ashim Sikaliyev).

Qaztughannyng ómir sýrgen uaqyty turaly eki kitapta  eki týrli derek aitylyp túr. Arasyndaghy aiyrma az emes, baqanday eki ghasyr. Búryn onsha bayqamaghanbyz. Yaky bayqasaq ta, onsha mәn bermegenbiz.

Bizdinshe, noghay ghalymy aityp otyrghan ekinshi derek shyndyqqa say keledi. Oghan dәlel әueli Qaztughannyng óz sózderi:

Kargaday Suiyinish uly
Kazy-Tuvyl oizy aitar.
Kazy, yaldan zat kalmay,
Kalmyklardan kashalmay,
Kaldy-av menim nogayym.
Orakshydan kulite alyp,
Otynshydan shyrpy alyp,
Orga baryp urynyp,
Oryp tavga suiriniyp,
Oildi-av menim nogayym.
Ana Edildy aldyryp,
Argymagyn taldyryp,
Atay mynan anayga
Aguv salyp kustyryp,
Azdly av menim nogayym.
Etisanym el izlep,
Emboylygym em izlep,
Etushkuliiym, koip halkym,
Ebiriyne em izlep,
Tozdy-av menim nogayym.
Biry ketty Krymga,
Biry ketty Urymga,
Baitir eldini balasy
Biz de ketip baramyz
Biyik tavdyni kyryna,
Ak Yayykty yandyryp,
Ana Edildy soindiriyp,
Ak Kobanda akyr nogay bardy dep,
Alasasyn tepkiylep,
Algasaydy nogayym.
Ahyrysy bu kunide
Ak Kobanga yyiylyp,
Askar tavga syiynyp,
Ak Shatyryn kurdyryp,
Ayaklandy av nogayym.
Kabagynnan boirk kiygen,
Sherkeshler men dos bolyp,
Shekelendy nogayym.
Ahyrysy bir kuinde,
Aikedey hanlardy
Ayvdayyn akyrtyp,
Azdaaday yskyrtyp,
Ana Edilde erkin yaylar nogayym.

(«Yyr iyesi men ediym», str. 79-80). Demek, jyrdaghy mәlimetterge qaraghanda Qaztughan júrtymen birge qalmaqtardan qashyp jýr. Biraq ol qaydan, qayda qashady? Edil, Jayyqtan Qobangha qashady. Qara tenizding jaghalauyndaghy Qoban jeri. Biz kenestik dәuirden biletin dertke shipa, jangha daua kurortqa toly Kubani jeri. Qaztughannyng kezinde ol Qyrym handyghyna qaraytyn jer. Qaztughannyng Qobangha kóshkenin rastaytyn taghy bir jyry bar:

Etisanym anav dep,
Emboylyghym munav dep,
Etishkuliim – koip halqym,
Kabyrgamda
Kanat bergen tayav dep,
Anna aituvda bolar dep,
Iytelgy kustay iyteliyp,
Tyrymtay kustay men oiziym
Karshyga kustay men oiziym
Kanat kagyp kavysyp,
Alar kustay avlanyp,
Boranda borap yol saldym,
Tolyqsyp bizim elimiyz
Kobanda konys konsyn dep!

(«Yyr iyesi men ediym», str. 73-74). Jyrdaghy tarihy kezendi anyqtaytyn bir jer – ol qalmaqtyng Angke han atynyng ataluy. Tariyhqa sholu jasasaq: Resey ghylym akademiyasynyng Qalmaq gumanitarlyq zertteuler institutynyng ghalymy V.T.Tepkeevting «Kaztuvgan  Sungnish uly – vydaishiysya yyravshy Nogayskogo naroda» atty maqalasy biraz kózdi ashady. Onyng aituynsha Qaztughan turaly alghashqy orys derekteri 1673 jyly kezdesedi. Onda osy jyldyng aqpan aiynda Qalmaq tayshysy Ayukening Ashtarhan  biyleushilerinen jas noghay myrzasyn bosatuyn súraghany turaly aitylady. Búl derekten Qaztughannyng bala kezinde (oryssha: Togan) Amanat ýiinde (Amanatnyy dvor) bolghany belgili bolady. Búl kelisim aqyry Ashtarhan tarapynan sheshimning Mәskeudegi patsha jarlyghymen ghana sheshiletindigin jetkizumen bitedi. Ayukenin  Qaztughangha ara týsu sebebi noghaydyng edisan ruy 1643 jyldan óz erikterimen Qalmaq ordasynyng qúramyna qosylghan edi. Edisan – belgili noghay ruy. Ol Qaztughannyng hәm әkesi Sýiinishting ruy (orys dereginde Sýiinish– Suunchy Abdulov atalghan). Sýiinish Abdullaúly 1648 jyly Qyrym joryghyna, 1657, 1673 jyldary orys-qalmaq kelissózderine qatysqan. Qalmaq tayshysy Luzan ózining qyzyn Sýiinishke bergen. Soghan qarap Tepkeev Qaztughannyng anasy Boztughandy osy Luzan tayshynyng qyzy dep joramaldaydy. Qaztughannyng esimi orys derekterinde ekinshi ret 1690 jyldary úshyrasady. Arhiv derekterinde edisan noghaylarynyng 1696 jyly Ayukeden qashyp, Qyrym hany Dәulet-Kereyge ótkeni turaly aitylady. Osy oqighalarda Qaztughan  kósh bastaghan kósemning biri bolghan. Onyng jyrdaghy: «Boranda borap yol saldym, Tolyqsyp bizim elimiyz, Kobanda konys konsyn dep!» degeni sol.

Edil boyy qalmaqtary Jonghariyadan auyp kelgen. Alghash ret XVI ghasyrdyng ayaghyna taman torghauyt qalmaqtary kelse kerek.   Olardyng keluine Resey imperiyasy mýddeli bolghan. Tipti qoltyqtaryna su býrikken. Olardy orystar parsy joryghyna, orys-shved, orys-týrik hәm 1812 jylghy Otan soghystarynda paydalanghan. Orystyng júmsauymen qalmaqtar әsirese, týrik (noghay, týrikmen, qazaq, daghystan, qúmyq) hәm kavkaz (sheshen, kabardiyn) halyqtaryna  talay oiran salghan. Edil boyyndaghy qalmaq handyghy 1633-1771 jyldary ómir sýrgen. El biylegen handary: Ho-Urluk (1633-1644), Shukur -Daychin (1644-1661), Monchak (1661-1672), Ayuke (1661-1724). Ásirese, Ayuke túsynda óte quatty el-júrt bolghan. Qaztughan aityp jýrgen Ayuke osy. Onyn:

Ankedey hanlardy
Ayvdayyn akyrtyp,
Azdaaday yskyrtyp,
Ana Edilde erkin yaylar nogayym –

dep jýrgeni beker emes. Ayuke Qaztughannyng Edildi erkin jaylap jýrgen edisan (jeti san) júrtyn atajúrtynan airyp otyr. Jyraudyng kókireginen әtshi jyrdyng tógiluining tarihy astary osynda jatyr.

Ókinshike oray  qazaq tilindegi Qaztughan shygharmalarynyng ishinde biz keltirip otyrghan osy eki jyr da joq. Bizding XVII ghasyrda ómir sýrgen Qaztughandy XV ghasyrgha aparyp, Edilden Qobangha kóshken Qaztughandy Ábilqayyr ordasynan Jetisugha kóshken Kerey, Jәnibek kóshterine qosyp jýrgenimiz sodan bolar, bәlkim. Qazaq handyghy dәuiri deytin әdeby kezendi zertteu sonau 1968 jylghy jaryq kórgen M.Maghauin aghamyzdyng «Qobyz saryny» monografiyasynan keyin toqtap qalghanday әser etedi. Bәlkim jazylghan biren-saran enbekter bar shyghar. Ózimiz búl kezendi indetip zertteushi emespiz. Aytpaqshy bolghanymyz, handyq dәuir kezenin jan-jaqty tarihy hәm әdeby túrghydan egjey-tegjey saralau 60-shy jyldardan keyin sayabyrsyp, basylyp qalghan qúsaydy.

Qaztughannyng Edilden aiyrylghan ashy zarynyng tarihy astaryn Sh.Uәlihanov jaqsy baghamdaghan siyaqty. Búl kezeng turaly ol bylay degen: « XVIII (sleduet: XVII) stoletie bylo vremenem ujasov y vnutrennih voyn. Predaniya, otnosyashiyesya k etomu vremeni, otlichaitsya mrachnym, pogrebalinym harakterom. Chujezemnye vragy stesnyayt ih s rodnyh mest, istorgait, razryvait rodstvennye (soiz) kazak y nogay. Nogaysy, stesnennye kalmyskim Ho-Urlukom, uhodyat za Ural y Volgu, a kazaky – na yug, y v 1632 my vidim hana kirgizskogo Ishima y Turupa (Tursuna): odnogo – v Turkestane, drugogo – v Tashkente. Znamenityy v stepyah «plach» na razdvoenie nogaev y kazakov igraetsya do sih por stepnymy muzykantamy na (kobyze) y istorgaet slezy u staryh aksakalov. «Kogda sto tysyach nogaysev vzvolnovalisi, kogda Urmambet- biy umer y samye chernye lesa zagorelisi», – poet stepnoy Boyan» (Ch.Valihanov. Izbrannye proizvedeniya // Kirgizskoe rodosloviye, Moskva, Nauka, 265 str). Búl jerde Shoqan ózbek-qazaq emes  noghay - qazaq bólinuin aityp otyr. Búl tarihy epizod Qaztughan ómir sýrgen zamangha jaqyn. Qazirgi jana zamanda (yaghni, postaltynordalyq, postkenestik) bizding shatasyp jýrgen jerimiz noghay-qazaq tarihyn jete týsinbeuden tuyp otyrghan siyaqty. Dingek – bireu. Oghan dau joq. Dingek – Týrik. Endi dingekting bútaqtary bar. Noghay, ózbek, qazaq búlar – bútaqtar. Bútaqty bútaq degenmen dingekke ziyan kelmeydi. Tek dingekti bútaq deuding qajeti joq. Ol shatastyru bolady. Ár nәrseni óz atymen atasa jetkilikti. Qargha boyly Qaztughan – qazaq aqyny deu sol shatastyrugha jatady. Búl bútaqty dingekpen shatastyru. Qargha boyly Qaztughan – noghay aqyny, óitkeni. Yaghni, Qaztughan – noghay. Al, noghay kim? Endi әngimening basyn azyraq soghan qaray búrayyq. Noghaylar turaly taghy sol Sh.Uәlihanov jaqsy aitqan: «Nado polagati, chto pod nogayamy pervonachalino razumelisi v Sredney Aziy vse kochevye plemena turkskogo y mongoliskogo proishojdeniya, govorivshie tatarskim yazykom, kak kalmykamy nazyvalisi kochevniki, govorivshie po-mongoliskiy» (Ch.Valihanov. Izbrannye proizvedeniya // Ocherky Djungarii, Moskva, Nauka, 287 str).

Noghay atauy turaly tereng tamyrly sóz deuge bolady búny.

Qazaq foliklory noghay júrty turaly bylay deydi:

Alashtan qazaq taraghan
Noghaylygha qaraghan.
Jaugha aldyrmay noghaylar,
Bir-birine qaraghan,
Bir-birine jaraghan.
Noghaydan qazaq bólinip,
Ýsh jýz bolyp taraghan

(A.Seydembekov. Qazaqtyng auyzsha tarihy, Astana, Foliant, 2017, 599-600 b).

M.Áuezov bylay deydi: «Noghaylydan song qazaq rularynyng kópshiligi ózbekpen bir bolghan» (M.Áuezov. Qobylandy batyr,  20 tom. shygh. jinaghy // 15 t. Almaty, Jazushy, 1984, 46 b). Yaghni, qazaq rulary qashan qazaq bolyp (yaghni, etnos bolyp) qalyptanghansha noghay, ózbek qalyptarynan ótken. Áuezov sony menzep otyr bú jerde.

Noghaylar – Altyn Ordanyng sayasy tandauly, iriktelgen qauymy (elitasy) bolghan. Qaradan shyghyp han bolyp, aq sýiekke ainalghan. Noghay dinastiyasynyng negizin qalaghan – Edige bi. Edigening kim ekendigi myna derekten - aq bilinedi: «Zanimaya doljnosti namestnika (hukumat) (Salmani 1956, r.83), yavlyalsya «istinnym vlastelinom Deshta, Saraya y Kryma ( Kurat 1940, r. 18), «vladykoy Desht-y Kipchaka y strany uzbekov» (V.V.Trepavlov. Istoriya Nogayskoy ordy, Izdateliskaya firma, Vostochnaya liyteratura, RAN, Moskva, 2002, str 79). Yaghni, Edigeni býtkil Altyn Ordanyng (Deshti qypshaqtyn) әmirshisi dep túr avtor. Altyn Orda (Joshy úlysy) – býkil euraziya dalasynda ornaghan týrik imperiyasy. Týrikterding әlemdik dengeyde sayasy bir órlegen túsy osy. Týrik imperiyasy tarih tolqynynda janqalanyp bólingen son, әrtýrli bólshek el-júrt payda boldy. Býgingi kýngi onyng bólikteri: qazaq, ózbek, qyrghyz, týrikmen, qaraqalpaq, tatar, bashqúrt, noghay t.b.  yaghni, qazirgi euraziya týrikterining sayasy kartasy osynday týrli-týsti boyaulardan túrady. Joshy úlysy kezinde basqasha boldy. Etnikalyq ataular tarihy kontekste qúbylyp otyrady. Mysaly qazirgi qazaq sol Altyn Orda kezinde de boldy. Aspannan týsken joq. Áuelgide Aq Orda qauymy bolsa, Altyn Ordanyng sonyna taman Shynghys úrpaghyn yghystyryp, sayasy yqpalgha ie bolghan noghaylar (yaki, manghyttar) túsynda noghay depte atalghan. Búl bizding sóz emes, jogharyda keltirilgen Sh.Uәlihanovtyng sózi.  Qazaq foliklorynyng sózi. Este joq eski sóz. Yaghni, tarihy sóz. Biraq ol noghayly atauynyng ol kezde etnikalyq sipattan góri sayasy mәni basym bolghan. Qazaq sózi siyaqty. Noghayly dәuirinde qazaq sózin eng kóp aitqan – noghaylar. Mysaly By Temirden qughyn kórgen Shalkiyiz: «Kazak ta shygyp baraman, Hayran da bolyp kalaman» deydi. Azauly er Dosmambet: «Argymakka ok tiydi, Ok tiygende bek tiydi, Kyrmaykannyng tuibinnen. Shabaghan kazak erge, Ok tiydi», taghy bir jerde: «Tenilerim menim esitse, Mal izlegen kazaka, Kyiyn boldy dertagy» deydi. Búnday әrtýrli maghynada aitylghan qazaq sózi tolyp jatyr. Tek onyng qazirgi sayasiy-әleumettik túrghydan әbden pisip-jetilgen etnostyq maghynada bolmaghany anyq. Oghan uaqyt kerek edi. Uaqyt Kerey, Jәnibek handyq qúrghan kezde keldi. Qazaq әlemdik sayasy arenagha birtútas últ retinde shyqty sol kezde. Yaghni, sayasy -әleumettik túrghydan pisip-jetildi.

Endi Qaztughandy qayda qosamyz? Qay әdeby kezenge degen sóz ghoy. M.Maghauin «Qobyz saryny» monografiyasynda jyraudy «XV -XVIII ghasyrlarda jasaghan qazaq aqyn, jyraulary» tobyna qosady. Qaztughan múrasyn «qazaq әdebiyetining basy bolyp esepteluge tiyis» deydi. Solay eseptelip te keldi. Biraq biz keltirip otyrghan mәlimetterge qaraghanda búlay qisyndaugha kelmeydi. Óitkeni, Qaztughan noghay bola túra, qalay qazaq әdebiyetining ókili bolady? Qayta onyng noghay әdebiyetining ókili bolghany әldeqayda dúrys emes pe? Anyghynda solay. Búl týiindi prof. Á.Qonyratbaevtyng myna pikiri sheship beretin siyaqty. Ol aitady: «Qazaq arasynda noghayly júrty, onyng býlinui, noghayly eposy, noghayly aqyndary deytin úghymdar bar. Biraq bizde noghayly júrty kimder, noghaylynyng býlinui degenimiz ne, qazaqta bar noghayly eposyna biz qalay qaraymyz, noghayly eposy jayly kim ne aitqan, noghayly aqyndary kimder degen mәseleler keleli týrde sóz bolmaghan. «Noghayly jyrlaryn» biz jogharyda sóz ettik. Shoqan qazaq eposy noghayly zamanynda tughan dese, noghayly aqyndardyng qataryna biz Asan - qayghy, Sypyra jyrau, Dospambet, qargha boyly Qaztughan, Shalgezderdi jatqyzamyz» deydi (Á.Qonyratbaev. Qazaq eposy jәne týrkologiya // «Noghayly» júrty kimder?, Almaty, Ghylym, 1987, 374 b).

Olay bolsa, qazaq әdebiyet tarihynda Altyn Orda dәuirinen keyingi әdeby kezeng Noghayly әdebiyeti dep ataluy kerek. Qazaq handyghy dәuirindegi әdebiyet odan keyin kelui kerek. Noghayly әdebiyetining qamtityn kezeni XV ghasyrdan XVII ghasyrgha deyingi aralyqty alady. Búl da  biz shygharyp otyrghan janalyq emes. Á.Marghúlan aitqan múny: «Oghyz-qypshaq eposyn tarihy jelige qoyyp, dúrys taptastyrushynyng biri akademik Á.H. Marghúlan boldy. Ózining «O haraktere y istoricheskoy obuslovlennosty kazahskogo eposa» (Izv. AN KazSSR. Ser. Istorich., 1946. № 2. S. 75-81) degen maqalasynda Á.H. Marghúlan oghyz-qypshaq eposyn mynaday dәuirlerge bólgen:

  1. Atam zamandarda tughan epos (XV-HII gh.gh).
  2. Tarihy dәuirde tughan eposy (HIII -XIV gh.gh).
  3. Noghayly eposy (XV- XVI gh.gh).
  4. Jonghar soghysymen baylanysty tughan epos (XVIII).
  5. Ishki qanaushy men handargha qarsy kýresti suretteytin epos.
  6. Sovet zamanyndaghy epos (Á.Qonyratbaev. Qazaq eposynyng tabighaty // Qazaq eposy jәne týrkologiya, 97 b).

Yaghni, búl jerde Á.Marghúlan qazaq eposyn dәuirlerge bólu ýshin noghayly eposyna arnayy oryn berip otyr. Atalghan enbeginde Á.Qonyratbaevta Marghúlanmen ýndes pikir aitqan. Ol ony sol ýshin keltirip otyr.  Á.Qonyratbaev: «noghayly eposy qay týrde bolsa da Altynordanyng qúlauymen baylanysty tughan jyrlar» deydi (Á.Qonyratbaev. «Noghayly jyry» turaly, 188 b).  Yaghni, noghay eposy – Altyn Ordanyng kýireu, ydyrau dәuirin suretteytin zor tarihi, әdeby múra. Hәm tek noghaylardyng ghana emes, býkil týrik júrtyna ortaq poetikalyq qazyna. Orhon eskertkishteri siyaqty. Oghyz qaghan, Qorqyt ata jyrlary siyaqty mysaly. Altyn Orda dәuirinde noghaylardyng әdeby ýrdiste jetekshi orynda boluy, bәlkim olardyng Joshy úlysyndaghy negizgi sayasy kýshke iye   boluyna baylanysty. Óitkeni, sayasatta kósem júrttyng barlyq salada kósemdikke ie bolatyny anyq, әdette.

«Kak utverjdaet akademik V. M. Jirmunskiy (Jirmunskiy V.M. Nekotorye itogy izucheniya geroicheskogo eposa narodov Sredney Aziy // Voprosy izucheniya eposa narodov SSSR, M., Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1958, S. 48) prof. A. K. Borovkov (Borovkov A.K. Voprosy izucheniya turkoyazychnogo eposa narodov Sredney Aziy y Kazahstana // Voprosy izucheniya eposa narodov SSSR, M. 1958, S. 68) y karakalpakskiy foliklorist, doktor filologicheskih nauk I. T.Sagitov (Sagitov I. Karakalpak halkynyn kaharmanlyk eposy, Nukus, 1963, S. 57, 64) bolishinstvo kazahskih karakalpakskih geroicheskih poem po svoim istoricheskim istochnikam voshodit k istoricheskim predaniyam Nogayskoy ordy y otrajayt ee vnutrennuu jizni, mejdousobnui boribu nogayskih murz y boribu Nogayskoy ordy protiv djungarov.«...S posledney chetverty XV do posledney chetverty XVI v. – piyshet akademik V. M. Jirmunskiy, – Nogayskaya orda igrala vajnui politicheskui roli v boribe mejdu Moskvoy, Kazaniu, Astrahaniu y Krymom y v sudibah vseh turkskih kochevyh plemen Sredney Aziy y Yugo-Zapadnoy Sibiri. IYmenno v etu poru epicheskie skazaniya, svyazannye s istoriey Nogayskoy ordy, poluchayt shirochayshee rasprostrane­nie sredy turkskih narodov Sredney Aziy y Sibiri, vhodyat v sostav epicheskih predaniy kazahov y nahodyat chastichnoe otrajenie y v kirgizskom epopee «Manas» (A.IY.-M. Sikaliyev (Sheyhaliyev). Nogayskiy narodnyy epos, Cherkessk, Karachaevo - Cherkesskiy gumanitarnyy institut,1994).

Osy oilardyng bәrine qorytpa retindegi M.Áuezovting myna sózin keltirsek: «Keyingi zamanda qazaq birligin jasaghan rular búryn Altyn Orda birliginde bolghan. Beri kele keybiri Qazan handyghyna, kópshiligi Noghayly birligine qosylghan. Noghaylydan aiyrylghan rular ózbekpen bir bolghan. Osy siyaqty tarihy dәuirlerding әrqaysysynan qazaqtyng býginde saqtalyp kelgen әdebiyetinde aiqyn iz bolmasa da, dolbar jasatarlyq úly sýrleu bar» (M.Áuezov. Halyq әdebiyeti turaly //M.Áuezov. Jiyrma tomdyq shygharmalar jinaghy, Almaty, Jazushy, 1984, 46 b). Osyny jazghanda M.Áuezov 27 jasar jigit bolghan eken. Maqala 1924 jyly Tashkent qalasynda «Jas qayrat» jurnalynda jariyalanghan. Jas zertteushining tarihy hәm әdeby tanymynyng terendigi tang qalarlyq, rasynda. Yaghni, qazaq – Altyn Orda, Noghay, Ózbek sayasy qúrylymdarynan tarihi, sayasy hәm etnikalyq sýzgige úshyrap baryp, payda bolghan jana etnikalyq top. Oghan deyin olarda tarihta, әdebiyette ortaq bolghan. Shyn mәnisinde ol ortaq әdebiyet biz ýshin XVI- XVII ghasyrlargha deyin jalghasqan. Mysaly, jyraulargha kelsek, Asan Qayghy, Shalkiyiz, Dosmambet, Qaztughan búlar – noghayly әdebiyetining ókilderi. Al, qazaq jyraularynyng kóshi XVII ghasyrdan, Jiyembet, Marghasqa jyraulardan bastalady (Biz búl esimder retin M.Maghauinning «Qobyz saryny», «Aldaspan» enbekterine sýienip, aityp otyrmyz). Biraq bizding oiymyzsha qazaq handyghy dәuirindegi әdebiyetke jyraularmen qatar birqatar tarihy prozalyq shygharmalardy da kirgizu kerek. Ol tanymdyq túrghydan paydaly bolady dep oilaymyz. Mysaly, eng qúrghanda M.H.Dulatiyding «Tariyh-y rashidiy», Qadyrghaly Jalayyriyding «Jamiygh-at tauariyh», Ibn Ruzbehannyng «Mihman-name-yy Buhara», Ábilghazynyng «Shejire y týrk» enbekteri – qazaq handyq dәuiri kontekstinde qaralugha, mәn beruge layyqty shygharmalar der edik.

Endigi bir manyzdy mәsele tekstologiya turaly. Bizding aityp otyrghanymyz noghay jyraularyna qatysty (Asan qayghy, Shalkiyiz, Dosmambet, Qaztughan). Biz keltirgen mysaldardan tekstologiyalyq júmystardyng óte ózekti bolatyny kórinip túr. Tekstologiyalyq júmysqa negizgi arqau material bolatyn ol – M.Maghauinning «Qobyz saryny», «Aldaspan», «Bes ghasyr jyrlaydy» enbekteri men A.IY.-M. Sikaliyevting (Sheyhaliyev) «Yyr iyesi men ediym» jinaghy. Osy eki qazaq, noghay mәtinderin salystyru asa zәru is. Óitkeni, eki jinaqta aiyrmashylyqtar óte kóp. Biraq týp-tamyrlary bir. Salystyru barysynda mәtinderding kólemi kóbeyip, sapasy jogharylap, qúny artatyny anyq. Biraq ol ýshin biraz ter tógip, kóz mayyn tauysyp, midyng azdap ashynqyraghany kerek. Áytpese, Maghauin men Sikaliyevting dayyndap bergen múralaryna «dayyn asqa tik qasyq» әdisimen sýiretilip, jýre bererimiz haq. Biraq búl ghylymgha jat nәrse. Tekstologiya turaly  әnimemizdi azdap derektendirip keteyik. Bir ghana mysal: M.Osmonovtyng kitabyn arly-berli paraqtap kórgenimizde Qaztughannyng әli jaryqqa shyqpaghan (әzirge jaryqqa shyqqanyn men ózim kórgen joqpyn) bir jyryn kózimiz shaldy. Qadym jazuyndaghy jyrdy shamamyz jetkenshe transkripsiya jasap, oqyrmangha úsynyp otyrmyz:

Aydyng úly ay batly, ay bidayyq kelpetli,
Kýnding úly kýn batly, kýn bidayyq kelpetli,
Kýdireygen ol ózi,
Sýiinishting úly shýikedey,
Atqa jenil jaugha auyr,
Jer zanghyrtqan ol kýndi,
Qazy Tughan myrza aitar,
Aghalardyng aghasy, aghynly ýlken sudyng jaghasy,
Aymaq kólding qoghasy,
Arghymaq araby atdyng taghasy,
Myrzalardyng myrzasy,
Búghyrdyng aiday bitken mýiizi,
Búghyrshyndyng deb edim,
Shanqa qorghan Azauy,
Bidayyqdyng deb edim,
Týsdin súqghan tyrnaghy,
Búlandyng tau jaylaghan dórt sany,
Elegen biday úndyng tazasy,
Eki asyldyng balasy,
Egeulengen oqdyng masaghy,
Ilingen yolparystyng terisi,
Qalayylanghan ol kýndi,
Qasgha ordadyng súrúghy,
Qashaghan araby atdyng qúryghy,
Qaniuat oidyng qúlpysy,
Dәiimghysy deb edim,
Aghasyna jaraghan,
Qadyrberdi jas soltandyng pashasy.

(Osmonov M.E. Nogayskie y kumykskie teksty. Hrestomatiya. SPb, Tipografiya imperatorskoy akademiy nauki, 1883, str, 94).

Endi A.Sikaliyevting kitabynan Qaztughannyng ghajayyp taghy bir jyryn keltire keteyik. Tek ony biz oryssha alfavitten qazaqsha qalypqa týsirip, keltiremiz:

Iayyqty aldy, Emdi aldy,
Edildi aldy, Tendi aldy,
Endi almaghan ne qaldy?
Aghalardyng qolynnan
Talpyy túrghan qústy aldy,
Endi almaghan ne qaldy?
Basy sayyn baslauly,
Baslauynyn
Basy sayyn qyslauly
Qara-Duan
Masaq degen erdi aldy,
Endi almaghan ne qaldy?
Egerine bú mәnji
Ayyry órkeshli týie aldy,
Sauaryna bú mәnji
Saylap-saylap bie aldy,
Endi almaghan ne qaldy?
Shayyna salar may aldy,
Shayqap isher túz aldy,
Endi almaghan ne qaldy?
Búrshaladan kóilekli,
Búrqysyghan yyparly,
Búrnynda
Dana kýmis alqaly,
Tamaghynyng astynda
Sary altyn týimeli,
Aygha, kýnge tiymegen,
Ádem betin kórmegen,
Ong bettegi arugha
Tie yazyp az qaldy.
Emdi alsa, Iayyq bar.
Iayyqty alsa, Edil bar,
Edildi alsa, Qoban bar,
Qobanda
Ayyry qúiryq saban bar,
Qobanda,
Taram-taram toghay bar,
Toghay toly noghay bar.
Bar tabylar, yoq keter,
Esen qolgha mal biter.

Osy jyrdaghy iydeyalyq saryn Múrattyng «Ýsh qiyan» tolghauynda óz jalghasyn tabady: «Edildi tartyp alghany, Etekke qoldy salghany, Jayyqty tartyp alghany – jaghagha qoldy salghany, Oiyldy tartyp alghany – oiyndaghysynyng bolghany». Búl sonau noghay jyraularynan kele jatqan úly saryn. M.Áuezov aitqan zar zaman ýni.

Qoryta aitqanda, noghay eposy –  býkil týrik eposyn zor kórkemdik biyikke kótergen erekshe әdeby qúbylys. Qaztughan – sol әlemdik biyik dengeydegi әdeby mektepting jaryghy mol júldyzy.

Aqjol Qalshabek 

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