Júma, 28 Qantar 2022
Ózgeler 7489 11 pikir 26 Sәuir, 2021 saghat 16:40

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Basy: Oralghandar eli – Izraili

Jalghasy: Bosqyndyq ómir. Otansyz taghdyr

HIH ghasyrdyng sonynda Europada jana bir últtyq nәsilshildikti negiz etken evreylerge qarsy tolqyn bas kóterdi. Europadaghy ónerkәsip-sauda kapitalizmining erkin damuy evreyler ýshin óz aqyl-parasatyn armansyz júmsaugha keng bir әlemning esigin ashqanday bolyp edi. Evreylerding ekonomikalyq jaqta qol jetkizgen tanghajayyp tabystary, eng aldymen, ózge últtardan shyqqan elitalyq toptyng qyzghanyshyn qozdyrdy. Al ash-jalanash, qarapayym halyq ta bay evreylerge óshpendilikpen qaraytyn boldy. Teng qúqyly, «azattyqqa» qol jetkizgen evreyler olargha kózge shyqqan sýieldey kórinip, orayy kelse, talap-jep, jútyp qoygha oqtalyp túratyn. 1881 jyly Resey patshasy Aleksandr II qastandyqqa úshyrady. Synyqqa syltau izdegender osy qaskýnemdikke evreylerding qatysy bar dep kinәlady. Artynsha, kýlli Reseyde evreylerdi ayausyz óltiru tolqyny beleng aldy. 1894 jyly jeltoqsanda Fransiya armiyasynyng kapitany evrey Alifred Dreyfus Otangha opasyzdyq jasady degen kýdikpen ómir boyyna bas bostandyghynan aiyryldy. Búl naqaq is 12 jyldan song (1906 jyly) baryp, aqtaldy.

Búl jaghdaylar Mozes Gess, Karl Marks, ravvin IYehuda Alkalay, ravvin Sviy-Girsh Kaliysher qatarly evrey oishyldaryn evreylerding últtyq mәselesin týbirinen sheshu joldaryn izdeuge mәjbýr etti. Oishyldardyng qatary ýzdiksiz tolygha berdi. 1981 jyly Reseyding Odessa qalasynda túratyn evrey dәriger Lev(Leon) Semyonovich «Ózimizdi azat eteyik» degen kitap jazyp, evreylerde basqa da ezilgen otar halyqtar siyaqty óz memleketin qúru arqyly ózderin azat etu kerek degen oiyn ortagha saldy. Ol osylay istegende ghana evreyler basqalarmen iyq tiresip, el sanatyndaghy últqa ainalady dep dәriptedi. Oghan jalghas, evrey memleketin qúru jәne ony is jýzine asyrudyng jýieli baghdarlamasyn úsynghan 1860 jyly Budapeshtte tuylghan әigili sayasy túlgha Teodor Gersli boldy. Ol búryn evreylerding ózi túrghan elderinde assimilyasiyalanuyn batyl jaqtaushylardyng biri bolatyn. Ol evreylerding shoqynuy men basqa últtargha nekelesui arqyly ózi túrghan elderine sinisip ketuin armandady. Biraq, Fransiya armiyasynyng kapitany evrey Alifred Dreyfusting isi onyng kózqarastaryn týbirimen ózgertip jiberdi. 1894-1895 jyldary ol Venadaghy yqpaldy bir gazetting tilshisi bolatyn. Sol arada ol Alifred Dreyfusting isin tergeuding barysyn tolyq qadaghalap, evreylerge saylanghan qastandyq spektaklining qisynsyz ssenariyin óz kózimen kórdi. Sot zalyndaghy tyndaushylar auyq-auyq «evreylerdi óltireyik!», «evreylerding kózi joyylsyn!» degen úrandardy et qúlaghymen estip, qatty týrshikti. Ol assimilyasiyalanu, kirmening kýnin kóru evreylerge qol emes, evrey mәselesin sheshuding kilti jәne birden-bir shyghar joly evreyding óz tәuelsiz memleketin qalyptastyru degen sheshimge keldi. Ol óz kýndeliginde: «Alifred Dreyfusting isi meni   evrey memleketin qaytarushylardyng sanatyna qosty» - dep jazdy.

Evrey memleketin qúrushylardy «Sionizmshilder» dep te ataydy. Sol kezde olardyng oilap tapqany IYerusalimning janyndaghy ejelgi evrey patshalyghynyng biyleushisi Dәuit Payghambar jatqan qasiyetti jer Sion taugha qaytu úrany boldy. Onyng basty maqsaty - Palestinadaghy evreylerding ejelgi ata qonysynan ózderine ekonomikalyq jәne ruhany tirek tauyp, sol aragha toptasu arqyly tәuelsiz evrey memleketin qalyptastyru edi.

1896 jyly Teodor Gerslding «Evreyler eli» degen enbegi basylyp shyqty. Ol óz әlinshe evrey memleketin qalyptastyrudyng joldary men aila-tәsilderin tәptishtep týsindirdi. Búl kitap evreylerding keyingi tarihyna erekshe yqpalyn tiygizdi. Keyin kele evrey memleketin qúrushylar qozghalysynyng kósemi Haim Veysman osy kitapty oqyghandaghy әserin: «Búl kitaptyng jaryq kórui aspannan nayzaghay týskendey әser etti. Teodor Gersli evrey halqynyng jýreginde ózderining Músa Payghambarymen qayta qauyshqanday sezim tudyrdy»-dep jazdy.

Teodor Gersli belsendi әreketi men ýgit-nasihatynyng arqasynda 1897 jyly Shveysariyada túnghysh retki evrey memleketshilderining birinshi qúryltayy shaqyryldy. Qúryltaygha shyghys Europa, batys Europa, Angliya, Amerika jәne Aljiriyadan kelgen 197 delegat qatysty. Qúryltayda Teodor Gersli ózining «Evrey memleketi» dep atalatyn kitabyndaghy aitylghan josparlarymen bólisti. Ol Palestinada nemese Argentinada evrey memleketin qúru josparyn aitty. Ol Lev(Leon) Semyonovich siyaqty әiteu evrey memleketin qúratyn jer tabylsa boldy, memleket tek Palestinada ghana shanyraq kóterui shart emes degen oiyn ortagha saldy. Biraq, jinalghandar bir auyzdan bolashaq evrey memleketi óz atamekenderi Palestinada qúryluy shart dep sheshti. Qúryltay evrey memleketin qalpyna keltiru qozghalysynyng baghdarlamasyn bekitti. Atalghan baghdarlamada: «Evrey memleketin qalpyna keltirushilerding maqsaty Palestinadan evrey últyna jalpygha birdey zandardyng qorghauyndaghy evrey elin qalyptastyru. Osy maqsat ýshin qúryltay tómendegi әdis-tәsilderdi úsynady:

  1. Evrey últynan shyqqan sharualardy, júmysshylardy, ústalar men qolóner sheberlerin Palestinagha qonystanyp, sol arada tirlik keshudi ýzdiksiz ýgitteu;
  2. Ár elderding zandary mýmkindik beretin kólemde әrbir jerde jergilikti sipaty bar úiymdar qúryp, sol arqyly barlyq evreylermen birlese әreket etu;
  3. Evrey últynyng ózara tuysqandyq sezimin kýsheytip, últtyq sanany oyatu;
  4. Týrlishe әdis-tәsildermen ishinara elderding ýkimetterining qoldauyna ie bolu. Búlar evrey memleketining qalpyna keltiruding sózsiz qajettiligi».

Qúryltay әlemdegi evreylerding memleketin qalpyna keltiru qauymdastyghyn qúryp,  Teodor Gersldi túnghysh tóragha  etip saylady. Qúryltay jәne evrey memleketining tuyn, memleketting әnúranyn bekitti. Qúryltay sheshimine sәikes Venada qauymdastyqtyq qimylyn ýilestiretin atqaru komiytetining túraqty ókildigi júmys isteytin boldy. Evrey memleketin qalpyna keltirushilerding maqsaty kýlli әlemge taryday shashylyp ketken evreylerdi birlikke shaqyryp, qonys audaru jolymen Palestinada memleket qúrudy múrat tútty. Alghashynda býkil evrey tabanynan tik túryp, búl úsynysty ilip әketken joq. Bastabynda qoldaushylardyng qatary aitarlyqtay az boldy. Keybir bay-manaptar evreylerding assimilyasiya boluyn dәriptep, evrey memleketin qúrushylargha qarsy boldy. Ásirese, Yahudy ravvinderi sol bayaghy dinny kerbaqpalyqqa basyp, múnday zayyrly baghyttaghy evrey memleketin qúru arqyly evreylerdi qútqarugha ýzildi-kesildi qarsy boldy.

1903 jyly Angliya ýkimeti Teodor Gerslige Angliyanyng otary bolghan Ugandagha evreylerdi kóshirip-qonystandyrugha úsynys jasady. Teodor Gersli búl úsynysty qabyldaugha beyim boldy. Keyin búl úsynys evrey memleketin qúrushylardyng altynshy qúryltayynda delegattardyng talqylauyna shygharyldy. Biraq, shyghys Europadan kelgen delegattar Angliyanyng úsynysyna qatang qarsylyq tanytyp, búl evrey memleketin qalpyna keltirushilerdi bólshektep tynady dep qarady. 1904 jyly evreyler Músa Payghambarday әspettep, qadirleytin Teodor Gersli nebәri 44 jasynda baqilyq boldy. Ol bolashaq Izraili memleketining irgetasyn qalay bastaghanda ómirden ozdy. Onyng mýrdesi 1949 jyly Izrailige әkelinip, IYerusalimdegi keyin kele Teodor Gersli atalyp ketken taugha jerlendi.

Evrey memleketin qalpyna keltirushilerding birinshi qúryltayynyng shaqyryluy jәne әlemdik evrey memleketshilerining qauymdastyghynyng qúryluy evrey memleketining qiyaldan shynayy әreketke ainalghandyghynyng belgisi edi. 1899 jyly qauymdastyqqa mýshe bolghandardyng sany 114 000 adamgha jetti. Al 1921 jyly 770 000 adamnan asty. HIH ghasyrdyng ortasynda býkil әlemdegi evreylerding sany 4 mln 750 myng bolatyn. Olardyng basym kópshiligi shyghys Europa men batys Europada qonystandy. HH ghasyrdyng basynda әlemdegi evreylerding sany 15 mln jetti. 1845 jyly Palestinadaghy evreyler nebәri 12 000 adam bolatyn. 1882 jyly 24 000 adamgha jetti. Áygili Bazeli qúryltayynyng qarsanyndaghy  1882 jyly Resey evreylerinen 50 er, 1 әielden qúralghan Reseylik alghashqy toptaghy qonystanushylar Palestinagha taban tiredi. Olar birinshi toptaghy órkeniyetti elden kelgen qonys audarushylar bolatyn. Olardy keyingiler atamekenge bet týzegen kóshting kóshbasshylary esebinde qúrmettedi. Osydan song dýniyejýzilik evrey memleketshilder qauymdastyghynyng ýndeuimen Palestinagha qonys audarushy evreylerding kóshi tolastaghan joq. Múnday qozghalystardy «oralushylar» dep ataytyn. 1882 jyldan 1914 jyldar aralyghynda eki mәrte auqymdy týrde oralushylardyng kóshimen mólshermen 65 mynday adam Palestinagha taban tiredi.

1901 jyly evrey memleketshilderining besinshi qúryltayynda «Evreylerding últtyq qory» qúryldy. Onyng mindeti Palestinadan jer jәne ýi-jaylar satyp alu, orman otyrghyzyp, toptasqan evrey qonystaryn qalyptastyru. Keyin kele auylsharuashylyq baghytyndaghy Moshav, Kibus eldi-mekenderi evreylerding últtyq qorynyng qarjysyna satyp alynghan bolatyn. Búl jerde aqshasy bar evrey Palestinadan qalaghan jerin satyp ala beredi degen jansaq úghym tumaugha tiyis. HIH ghasyrdyng sonynda Osman týrik imperiyasy zaualgha bet aldy. Qazynanyng qorjynyn toltyru ýshin Týrkiya ýkimeti túz, temeki, araq-sharap jәne jibekting kedendik salyghyn kepilge qong arqyly damyghan elderden kóp mólsherde qaryz ala bastady. «Qaryz týbi – borysh» degendey, shet el alpauyttary týrli syltaularmen memleket ishinde memleket qúryp, óz qúrylymdaryn Týrkiya iyelikterine tyqpalay bastady. Olar eng aldymen Týrkiyanyng poshta jýiesi senimsiz degen syltaumen Osman imperiyasynyng aumaghynan ózderine baghynatyn poshta qyzmeti jýiesin qalyptastyrdy. Búl qyzmetti Palestinalyqtar, Týrkiya azamattary jәne shet eldikter qalaghanynsha paydalanatyn boldy. týrkiya ýkimeti amalsyzdan shet eldikterge týrli-týsti erekshe qúqyq beretin sharttargha qol qoyatyn boldy. Búl óz kezeginde Týrkiya aumaghyndaghy shet eldikterding qúqyghyn Týrkiya zandaryna baghynbaytyn memleket ishindegi memleketke ainaldyrdy. Múnda azamattardyng eki týrli qúqyghy boldy. Biri – Týrkiya azamattary, ekinshisi – erekshe qúqyqtyq mәrtebege ie basqa elderding diasporasy. Týrkiya azamattary óz biylikterine shartsyz baghynuy shart. Al shet el diasporalary Týrkiya biyligine baghynbaydy. Olar óz qúqyqtary búzyldy dep sanasa, dereu konsulgha aryzdanyp, qorghaudy talap etedi. Osy jaghdaydy evreyler de ontayly paydalandy. Olar qit etse boldy, ózi shyqqan elding konsuldarynyng qoldauyna jýgiretin. Áriyne, belgili órkeniyetti qúqyqtyq jýie qalyptasqan  batys elderi óz azamattary sanalatyn evreylerdi qoldap-qolpashtaytyn. Tek qana, Reseyding diplomatiyalyq ókildikteri nem ketti, salqyn qabyldaytyn. Bir qyzyghy, jer mәselesine kelgende, Osman imperiyasynyng súltandary tym aqymaq bolghan joq. Olar týrli zan-jarlyqtar shygharyp, evreylerding jer satyp aluyna kedergi jasady. Biraq, evreylerding qomaqty parasy týrikterding jergilikti biyleushilerin zandy ýnemi belden basugha iytermeleytin. Olar óz parasyn alghan son, evreylerding jer satyp aluyna kóz júmbaylyqpen qarap ýirendi.

Memleket qúru ýshin basym kópshilik halyq birtútas qoldanatyn últtyq til-jazu bolugha tiyis. Biraq, evreylerde onday mýmkindik atymen joq bolatyn. Ejelgi irbit tili 2000 jyldan beri jalpy bettik qoldanudan shettetilip, Yahudiylerding diny tәpsirlerinde jәne diny rәsimderde ghana qoldanylatyn. Palestinagha oralghan evreyler әrqaysysy ózi kelgen elding til-jazuyn paydalanatyn. Syrt kózge qaraghanda, olardy bir últ dep aitugha kelmeytin edi. Sebebi olardyng ortaq til-jazuy bolghan joq. Eliyezer Berkovis degen evrey búl jaghdaydy ózgertuge bel baylady. Ol 1881 jyly Palestinagha kóship kelgennen keyin, irbit tilin tiriltu  júmysyn tolyghymen ayaqtap, irbit tilin evreylerding kýndelikti ómirde ortaq qoldanatyn til-jazuyna ainaldyrdy.

1909 jyly ekinshi retki Palestinagha oralu nauqany kezinde Tiyveriad kóli jaghasyndaghy Deganiyadan túnghysh retki újymdyq auyl sharuashylyq úiymy Kibusty qúrdy. Ol tez arada damyp, auyl sharuashylyq újymdyq qozghalysyna ainaldy.

1913 jyly 11-kezekti evrey memleketshilderining qúryltayy Venada shaqyryldy.  Qúryltayda әigili aghylshyn himiygi Haim Veysman júrt arasynan suyrylyp shyghyp, erekshe kózge týsti. Ol odan búryn tóragha retinde saylanbaghan bolsa da, evrey memleketshilderining is jýzindegi kósemine ainalyp, evrey memleketin qúru qozghalysyn týpkilikti jeniske jetkizdi. Sodan bastap, evrey memleketshilder qozghalysynyng ekinshi kezeni bastaldy (1913-1946 jj). Búl dәuir «Haim Veysman dәuiri» dep ataldy. Onyng ereksheligi ol barlyq kýshimen Angliya biyligining qoldauyna arqa sýieu arqyly evrey memleketshilderining maqsatyn jýzege asyra aldy.

1914 jyly birinshi dýniyejýzilik soghys tútanghanda evrey memleketshilderi bastabynda Antanta elderi men Ýshtik Odaq elderining arasynda beytarap baghyt ústandy.  Keyin kele Haim Veysman bastaghan evrey memleketshilderi Antanta Odaghy elderine birjolata bet búryp, Angliyagha jaqyndasu sayasatyn ústandy. Olar Angliyada belsendi qimyl jasap, Angliya ýkimetining qoldauyna qol jetkizuge talpyndy. Haim Veysman Reseyde tuylghan evrey bolatyn. Keyin HH ghasyrdyng basynda Angliyagha qonys audaryp, Manchester uniyversiytetinde himiyadan sabaq berdi. Ol «Manchester» gazetining redaktory jәne bas sholushysymen tanysyp, atalghan gazette  evrey memleketshildigin barynsha dәripteuge qol jetkizdi. Keyin ol Angliya Teniz armiyasynyng himiyalyq zerthanasyna júmysqa ornalasyp, Angliya ýkimetine qúny aitarlyqtay arzangha týsetin jarylghysh dәrini sәtti jasap berip, Angliya ýkimetining erekshe qúrmetine bólendi. Ol Angliyanyng sayasat sahnasy men qarjy salasyndaghy bedeldi túlghalarmen keng kólemdi dostyq ornatty. Mysalgha, onymen jaqyn qarym-qatynasta bolghandardyng ishinde Gerbert Luis Semuel (evrey, 1916 jyly Angliyanyng ishki ister uәziri), Artur Balifur (1914 jyly soghys kezindegi ýkimet mýshesi, 1916 jylghy syrtqy ister uәziri), Devid Lloyd Djordj (1908 jyly qarjy ministri, 1915-16 jyldary әskery qamtamasyz etu ministri, 1916 jyldyng sonynda bas uәzir) jәne evreylerding qarjy alpauyty bankir Rotshilid әuletining adamdary boldy. Ol barlyq mýmkindikterdi paydalana otyryp, atalghan túlghalargha evrey memleketin qalpyna keltirudi dәriptedi. Búl adamdar týrli dәrejede onyng yqpalyna úshyrady. Haim Veysman evrey memleketshilderining taghdyryn Angliyanyng mýddesimen baylanystyrugha kýsh saldy. Ol  Palestina bolashaqta Angliyanyng yqpal-kólemine kiruge tiyis.  Tipti, Angliyanyng otaryna nemese qorghauyndaghy elge ainaluy mýmkin dep ýmittendi. Ol kezde Angliyanyng qoldauy Palestinagha evreylerding kóptep qonys audaruynyng kepili bolady. Sol arqyly evreyler Palestinada toptasyp óz memleketin qúrugha mýmkindik alady dep sendi.

Haim Veysmannyng búl oilary Angliya ýkimetining orta shyghysqa irge keneytu josparyna ýilese ketti.  Angliya 1882 jyly Egiypetti basyp aldy. Ol Jerorta tenizining ontýstik aimaqtarynyng strategiyalyq ornyn bekemdeu ýshin Angliyadan Indiyagha baratyn transporttyq dәlizdi erekshe qorghaugha mәjbýr boldy. Ol ýshin Angliya ýkimeti Palestinany óz iyeligine alugha tiyis. Birinshi dýniyejýzilik soghysta Týrkiya Ýshtik Odaq elderine  mýshe bolghandyqtan, Angliyagha týrikterding qolynan Palestinany tartyp alugha syltau tabyldy. Belfort jarnamasy osynday tarihy jaghdayda qabyldanghan bolatyn. Belfort jarnamasy jariyalanudan búryn (1917 jyly mausym) Angliya ýkimeti ózining Egiypettegi alysqa joryq armiyasynyng qolbasshysy general Allenbiyge Týrkiyagha qarsy súrapyl shabuyl úiymdastyrugha, sol arqyly IYerusalimdi basyp alu ýshin dayyndalugha búiryq berdi. 1917 jyly 2-qarashada Angliyanyng syrtqy ister ministri Artur Balifur evrey memleketshilderining basshysy Rotshilidge hat jazu tәsilimen atalghan jarnamany jariya etti. Jarnamada: «Mәrtebeli Angliya Koroli ýkimeti Palestinada evrey halqynyng últtyq memleketin qalyptastyrugha qoldau bildiredi jәne barlyq mýmkindikti paydalanyp, osy maqsatty iske asyrugha kýsh salady. Biraq, myna jaghdaydy aiqyn týsinuleriniz kerek. Sizder eshqanday әreketterinizben Palestinadaghy evreylerden ózge qoghamdyq toptargha jatatyn azamattardyng qúqyghy men diny senim qúqyghyna ziyan keltirulerinizge bolmaydy. Sonymen birge, evreylerding basqa memleketterden iygiliktenetin qúqytary men sayasy ornyna ziyan tiygizbeuleriniz kerek» dep jazyldy.

Artur Balifurdyng jarnamasy jariyalanghannan keyin, kóp ótpey toghyzynshy jeltoqsanda Angliya armiyasy IYerusalimdi basyp aldy. Osydan-aq Angliya ýkimetining Artur Balifur jarnamasyn jariyalaudaghy eng basty sebebi sol kezdegi Angliya ýkimeti men evrey memleketshilderining Palestina mәselesindegi mýddesi men arman-tilegi tolyqtay ýndeskendigin kórsetti. Sol sebepti Artur Balifur jarnamasy evrey memleketshilderi men Angliyanyng óz mýddeleri ýshin bir-birin sheber paydalanuynyng jemisi dep qabyldaghan jón. Keybir enbekterde Angliyanyng Artur Balifur jarnamasyn jariyalauy AQSh, Resey jәne Germaniyadaghy evreylerding qoldauyna alyp, Antanta elderining Ýshtik Odaqqa qarsy soghysynda paydalanudy maqsat tútty desedi. Meninshe, Angliya tarabynda onday oilardyng boluy әbden mýmkin. Biraq, búl týpkilikti sebep emes.

Artur Balifurdyng jarnamasynyng jariyalanuy evrey memleketshilderining qozghalysynyng damuy men Izraili memleketining qúryluynda erekshe manyzdy mәnge ie boldy. Bir kezderi Izrailidin  syrtqy ister ministri bolghan Abba Evenning «Evreylerding tarihy» atty kitabynda: «Artur Balifurdyn  jarnamasynyng jariyalanuy Izraili memleketining qúryluynda sheshushi sipattaghy oqigha boldy. Tipti, onyng mәn-maghynasy  1948 jyly Izraili memleketining qúryluynan da asyp týsti» -  dep baghalanghan bolatyn. Onyng kózqarasynsha  Artur Balifurdyng jarnamasy bolmaghanynda osy zamanghy Izraili memleketi de bolmauy mýmkin edi dep qaraydy. Áriyne, búl kózqarasta atalghan jarnamanyng әserin әsire әspetteu basym. Meninshe, evreylerding Izraili memleketin qúru ýshin ghasyrgha juyq uaqyt jan qiyarlyqpen jasaghan kýresin sayasy qajettilikten tuyndaghan bir elding jarnamasyna týgeldey telip jiberu jansaqtyq bolady. Dau joq, Artur Balifurdyng jarnamasy evreylerding Palestina jerine memleket qúruyna halyqaralyq negiz qalady desek, әldeqayda әdiletti bolady dep oilaymyn.

1920 jyly Angliya Palestinada óz ókiletti biyleushilerin taghayyndau qúqyghyna ie boldy. Demek, osydan bastap Palestinanyng biyleushisi Osman týrikteri emes, endi aghylshyndar boldy. 1922 jyly halyqaralyq odaq Angliyagha Palestinany biyleu qúqyghyn beretin sheshiminde evreylerdi Palestina tarihy men birtútastyghyn moyynday otyryp, olardyng Palestina jerine óz mekenderin qayta qúru qúqyghyn jomarttyqpen syigha tartty. Halyqaralyq odaqtyng sheshiminde Angliya ýkimetining evreylerding Palestinagha qonys audaryna qoldau bildiruine, sol arada shoghyrlana qonystanuyna jәne ózderining avtonomiyalyq qúrylymdaryn qúruyna mýmkindik beruge shaqyrdy. Sheshimde taghy arnayy evreylerding is basqarmasyn qúryp, evreylerding memleket qúru isinde Angliya biyligimen istestik ornata otyryp, Palestina aimaghynyng damuy men órkendeuine ese qosu mәselesi de qarastyrylghan. Áriyne, enbek sýigish evreylerding damuy mýlde kenjelep qalghan osy aimaqtyng tamyryna qan jýgirtip, damuyna serpin beretindigi dausyz. Biraq, ol sol arqyly sol aimaqty san ghasyrlar boyy mekendep kelgen arabtardyng toz-tozyn shygharyp, bostyryp jiberuding esebinen jýzege asatyndyghy da shyndyq edi. Halyqaralyq odaqtyng sheshimi Angliya ýkimetining orta shyghysty tolyqtay óz uysynda ústau strategiyasyna ýilesetin. Odan da manyzdysy, atalghan sheshim  evrey memleketshilderining kókten súraghanyn jerden bergendey olar ýshin erekshe manyzdy mәnge ie boldy. Evrey memleketshilder úiymynyn  basshylary búl sheshimde taygha tanba basqanday anyq jazylghan Angliya ýkimetining evreylerding Palestinagha qonys audaruyna jәne evrey is basqarmasyn qúruyna qoldau kórsetuin ózderining Palestina jerinde últtyq memleket qúru ýrdisine Angliya ýkimeti mindetti jәne jauapkershilikti óz moynyna aldy dep qabyldady.

1922 jyly evrey is basqarmasy resmy qúryldy. Ol Palestinadaghy evrey qoghamdyq úiymdarynyng biri retinde Angliya biyligimen, halyqaralyq úiymdarmen jәne әlemdegi evrey úiymdarymenen baylanys jasau ókilettiligine ie boldy. Bylaysha aitqanda, bolashaq Izraili memleketining syrtqy ister ministrligining qyzmetin atqardy. Ol Izraili memleketin qalyptastyruda óz kezeginde erekshe manyzdy ról atqardy.

Artur Balifurdyng jarnamasy jariyalanghan 1917 jyldan 1939 jylghy ekinishi dýniyejýzilik soghystyng tútanu qarsanyna deyin evrey memleketshilder qoghalysy qaryshtap damyghan altyn dәuir boldy. Ol, negizinen, myna eki baghyttaghy damudan aiqyn kórindi:

1. Palestina jerine qonys audarghan evreylerding qatary qomaqty týrde kóbeydi jәne evreyler últtyq qory tarabynan satyp alynghan jer kólemi de aitarlyqtay keneydi. 1918 jyly Palestinadaghy evreylerding sany 55 myng bolyp, sol aimaq jan sanynyng onnan birin ghana qúraytyn. Al, 1939 jyly Palestinadaghy evreylerding sany 450 myng adamdy qúrap, aimaq jan sanynyng ýshten birinen asty. Sonymen bir uaqytta evrey últtyq qorynyng satyp alghan jer kólemi 1939 jylgha barghanda 47 000 gektar aumaqty qúrady. Evrey jan sanynyng qauyrt artuy men menshigindegi jer kólemining ýzdiksiz keneni is jýzinde atalghan aimaqtaghy evrey últynyng últtyq potensialynyng bekemdele týskendigin kórsetti. Mine, búl Izraili memleketining qúryluyndaghy eng basty alghyshart bolatyn;

2. Evreyler qúrghan sayasy partiyalar men týrlishe balamaly memlekettik qúrylymdardyng qalyptasuy boldy. 1918 jyly evrey júmysshylarynyng birlesken partiyasy men evrey jas júmysshylar partiyasy qúryldy. 1930 jyly eki partiya birlesip Palestina júmysshylar partiyasy (búl Izraili memleketi qúrylghannan keyin úzaq jyl biylik basynda bolghan Izraili júmysshylar partiyasynyng bastauy edi) bolyp, qayta qúryldy. Palestina júmysshylar partiyasyn alghashqy qúrushylardyng biri Izraili memleketi qúrylghannan keyin úzaq jyl osy memleketting premier-ministri qyzmetin atqarghan David Ben-Gurion boldy. 1920 jyly qúrylghan evrey bas júmysshylar úiymy balamaly memlekkettik qúrylymdardyng kýlli qyzmetin bir ózi atqardy. Evrey bas júmysshylar úiymynyng ónerkәsip-sauda ksәporyndary men auyl sharuashylyghyndaghy Kubister jelisi memleket qúrylghannan keyingi Izrailiding jalpy halyqtyq menshiktegi ekonomikalyq qúrylymdarynyng negizin qúrady. 1920 jyly evrey júmysshylarynyng birlesken partiyasynyng qúryltayy evreylerding әskery qúrylymy haganany qúrugha sheshim qabyldap, Palestinadaghy evreyler qonystanghan aumaqtyng amandyghyn qorghaudy mindettedi. Keyin búl qúrylym Izraili memlekettik qorghanys armiyasyna biriktirilip, Izraili armiyasynyng basty tiregine ainaldy. Memleketti qúraytyn adamdar, qonystanatyn menshikti jerleri, sayasi, ekonomika, әskery jәne diplomatiyalyq úiymdardyng qúryluymen bir uaqytta evreylerding óz menshigindegi kemeldi últtyq bilim beru qúrylymy da qalyptasty. Sóitip, ekinshi dýniyejýzilik soghystyng qarsanynda evreylerding óz memleketining Palestina jerindegi alghashqy nobayy dәl osy mezgilderde qalyptasyp ýlgerdi. Atalghan aimaqty basqarudy óz mindetine alghan Angliya ýkimeti evrey últynyng Palestinadaghy kýn sanap kýsheygen ómir shyndyghyna  bey-jay qaray almaytyn dengeyge jetti.

Áriyne, basynan qyrsyq arylmaghan evrey halqynyng ylghy da jeli onynan túrghan joq. Artur Balifurdyng jarnamasy jariyalanghannan bastap, Palestinada qonys audarghan evreyler sol aradaghy jergilikti arabtarmen qayshylyghy  barghan sayyn asqyna berdi. Tipti, qaruly qaqtyghystar da jii oryn alatyn boldy. 1921, 1929 jәne 1936 jyldary arabtar ýsh mәrte Angliya biyligine qarsy kóterilip, evreylerge zorlyqty kýsh qoldandy. Qaqtyghys kezinde evreylerden 400-den astam adam ajal qúshty. Al arabtardan 3000-nan asa adam ómirmen qoshtasty. Tipti, Angliya armiyasynyng ózinen 100-den asa sarbaz oqqa úshty. Ýshinshi retki Angliyagha qarsy túryp evreylerdi qudalau oqighasynan kóp ótpey, Angliya ýkimeti 1936 jyly Uiliyam Robert Pili bastaghan arnayy tekseru ýiirmesin Palestinagha jiberip, arabtardyng dýrbeleng tudyru sebepterin zerttey bastady. Atalghan ýiirme osy oqighadan naqty qorytyndy shygharyp, sheshu joldaryn tabugha da mindettelgen bolatyn. 1937 jyldyng shilde aiynda Robert Piliding komiyteti óz bayandamasyn jariyalap, onda arabtardyng dýrbeleng tudyruynyng basty sebebi últtyq derbestikke úmtylghan evreylerding últtyq memleket qúru әreketine arabtardyng óshpendiligi men qorqynysh sezimining týrtki bolghandyghy aityldy. Robert Piliding komiyteti Angliya ýkimetine atalghan aimaqty basqarudy ayaqtap, ony ýshke bólip, avtonomiyalyq basqarugha berudi úsyndy. Múnda bir bóliginde arnayy evrey memleketin qúryp, onyng qúramyna Palestinanyng ýshten bir territoriyasyn berudi, múnda 300 000 evrey men 290 000 arabtardy qonystandyru jón dep sheshti. Búdan tys, Yaffodan temir joldy boylap, IYerusalimge deyingi, múnda qasiyetti IYerusaliym, Vifleem men Nazaretti qamtyghan úzynnan-úzaqqa sozylyp jatqan targhalang jәne kishkentay bir bóligin Angliyanyng óz basqaruyna qaldyryp,  qalghan bóliginde arab memleketin qúrudy úsyndy. Osydan son, Angliya ýkimeti arnayy aq tysty kitabyn jariyalap, Palestinany bólip basqarugha kelisimin berdi.

Evrey memleketshilderi Robert Pili komiytetining úsynysy evreyler ýshin týnilu sezimin tudyrghanymen, birinshi ret resmy týrde evrey memleketi degen úghymdy qoldynsqa engizdi. Búl da bolsa evrey memleketshildik qozghalysy ýshin jenis dep sanady. Sol jyly tamyzda Surihte evrey memleketshilderining 20-qúryltayy Robert Piliding jospary evreyler ýshin óz josparyn oryndaudyng baspaldaghy dep eseptedi. Qúryltay Palestinadaghy evrey is basqarmasyna Angliya ýkimetimen jalghasty kelissóz ótkizip, búdan da kónilge qonymdy bólip basqaru jobasyn qolgha keltirudi tapsyrdy.

Sol kezdegi halyqaralyq odaqtyng senimdi basqarugha beru komiyteti arabtar men evreylerdi avtonomiyalyq basqarugha dayyn emes jәne memleket basqarugha mashyqtanbaghan dep qarap, Angliya ýkimetining bólip  basqaru jobasyn qabyldaudan bas tartty. Oghan jalghas, arab memleketterining kenesi de Robert Piliding josparyn qabyldaugha qarsylyq tanytty.

1939 jyldyng basynda Angliya ókimeti Londonda arabtar men evreylerding ókilderi qatysqan Palestina mәjilisin shaqyryp, arabtar men evreylerdi tatulasugha shaqyrdy. Mәjiliste arabtar men evreylerding talaptary bir-birinen mýlde alshaq bolghandyqtan tatulastyru mýmkin bolmay, mәjilis sәtsiz ayaqtaldy. 1939 jyldyng mamyr aiynda Angliya ýkimeti ózining Palestinagha qaratqan sayasaty jónindegi aq tysty kitabyn jariyalap, ózining Palestina mәselesin sheshudegi josparyn ortagha saldy. Aq tysty kitap ýsh negizgi mazmúnnan túrady:

1. Palestinanyng keleshegi jayly. Múnda Angliya ýkimeti Palestinany bolashaqta evrey memleketine ainaldyru sayasatynyng joq ekendigin ashyq mәlimdedi. Búlay isteu halyqaralyq odaqtyng senip basqaru sheshimindegi ózining arabtar aldyndaghy mindettemelerine qayshy keledi dep esepteydi. Angliya ýkimetining maqsaty on jyl ishinde Angliyamen shartty kelisim jasasqan tәuelsiz eki últty birdey qamtyghan Palestina memleketin qúru.

2. Evrey qonys audarushylary jayly. Múnda 1939 jyldyng sәuir aiynan 1944 jyldyng nauryz aiynyng sonyna deyingi 5 jyl ishinde 75 000 evreyding ghana Palestinagha qonys audaruyna rúqsat berip, evreylerding Palestinadaghy salystyrmasyn sol búrynghy ýshten bir mólsherinen asyrmaudy mindetteu. 5 jyldan keyin evreyler Palestinagha qonys audarghysy kelse, mindetti týrde arabtardyng kelisimin alu qajet bolady.

3. Jer paydalanu qúqyghyn ótkermeleu mәselesi. Múnda Angliyanyng joghary dәrejeli ókiletti gubernatoryna barlyq biylikti berip, arabtardyng óz menshigindegi jerlerdi evreylerge satyp jiberuin nemese basqa bir joldarmen ótkermelep beruin boldyrmau qajet dep sheshti.

Angliya ýkimetining aq tysty kitabyndaghy aitylghan ústanym Artur Balifurdyng jarnamasynda aitylghandarmen mýlde qabyspaytyndyghy ap-ayqyn edi. Angliya ýkimetining búlay ayaq-astynan syrt berui tónip kele jatqan  dýniyejýzilik soghysta Jerorta tenizining strategiyalyq ótkeldik rólining qauipsizdigin qamtamasyz etu men orta shyghystyng múnayyna bolghan múqtajdyghynan tuyndaghan bolatyn. Angliya ýkimeti osy sayasat arqyly arabtardyng kónilin aulap, olardyng Angliyagha bolghan tileulestik sezimin oyatudy maqsat tútqan edi. Aghylshyndardyng baqay esebi, evreylerdi qoldap, arabtardy osylay shapqa týrte bersek,  soghys maydanynda ózimiz yryqsyz jaghdayda qalamyz degen alandaushylyqtan tuyndady. Áriyne, evreyler aq tysty kitapta aitylghandarmen ýzildi-kesildi kelispedi. Evreyler Angliya ýkimetining sayasaty Artur Balifurdyng jarnamasy men halyqaralyq odaqtyng Palestinany basqaru, senip tapsyru sheshimderindegi  aytylghan maqsattarmen qabyspaydy. Angliya men evreylerding úzaq uaqyttyq yntymaqtastyghyna kesirin tiygizedi jәne bolashaqta qúrylugha tiyis evrey memleketin jórgeginde túnshyqtyrady dep qarady. Angliya ýkimeti evreylerding Palestinagha qonys audaruyn tejep, evreylerding Palestinadaghy ýlesin mәngilikke ýshten birden asyrmay evreylerdi qiyamet qayymgha deyin arabtargha baghynyshty az sandy últ retinde ústau sayasaty atymen qate jәne eshqashan qabyldanbaydy dep óz qarsylyqtaryn qarsha boratty. Aq tysty kitap jariyalanghannan keyin evreyler  tek auyz jýzinde úrandatyp, jer tekpilep, ulap-shulap qana qalghan joq. Olar endi qolyna qaru alyp, Angliya qaruly kýshterimen qaqtyghysa bastady. Ekinshi dýniyejýzilik soghystyng ón boyynda evreyler men Angliyanyng qarym-qatynasy qayshylyqty jәne erekshe kýrdeli kezeng boldy. Sol kezde óz tәuelsiz memleketimizdi qúrmay tynbaymyz dep bekingen  evreyler qanday aiqasqa bolsa da barugha dayyn bolatyn.

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