Seysenbi, 9 Nauryz 2021
Alashorda 8699 12 pikir 21 Qantar, 2021 saghat 10:42

Asharshylyq – genosidtik qatygezdikting saldary

I. Qúrbandar ruhyna taghzym

Asharshylyq jayly sóz qozghalsa: – Búl taqyrypqa men alghash barghanmyn, – deytinder tabylyp jýr. Shyndyghyna kelsek, atalghan zúlmat turaly talay qalamger sol – qiyn jyldardyng ózinde jazghan.

Torghaylyq aqyn Núrhan Ahmetbekovtyng «Kýlәndam» dastany 1932 jyly tughan jyr. Ol aqiqatty ashyq aitqany ýshin týrmege toghytyldy.

Búdan song Jaqan Syzdyqovtyng «Áli qarttyng әngimesi», Shahan Musinning «Sónbegen senim», Býrkit Ysqaqovtyng «Tas eden yzghary» dastandary jazyldy.

Beyimbet Maylinning «Ayt kýnderi» әngimesinen de asharshylyqtyng salqyny seziletin.

Qaterli kezende zúlmatty bayandaudan jasqanbaghan búl qalamgerlerding bәri derlik bolishevikterding qaharyna úshyrady.

h h h

Stalin kelmeske ketip, Hrushev taqqa otyrghan song auyldaghy qariyalar kәmpeske, jer audaru, ashtyq jayly aita bastady. Solardyng shapanyna oralyp jýrip, nebir ýreyli oqighalardy estidik.

Atam Smayyl maldan aiyrylghan song Qaraghandy qalasynda túratyn, shahtalardan kómir tasityn kólik mekemesin basqaratyn ýlken úly Arystandy saghalaydy. Ol shahargha jan-jaqtan shúbyrghan ash-aryq elge arba-shanagha jegip jýrgen attyng bireuin soyyp, etin taratyp bergeni ýshin sottalady. Qaraghandy lagerining Dolinkadaghy bólimshesine aidalady, kishi úly Zeynolla panasyz jetimderge erip, Tashkentten biraq shyghady. Eki inisining bireuin qyzyldar atyp ketedi.

Mine, osy oqighalar kókeyde kýmbirlep jýrip, jetpisinshi jyldardyng orta sheninde kórkem shygharmagha ainaldy. Bas-ayaghy jinaqy yqsham povesti edi, soghan әngimelerimdi qosyp 1974 jyly «Jazushy» baspasyna tapsyrdym.

Arada eki ay ótti ghoy deymin, keri qaytaryldy, asharshylyq jabyq taqyryp kórinedi.

Keyin 2002 jyly ony tolyqtyryp, «Tamúqtan kelgen adam» degen atpen qayta jazdym. Romangha 2006 jyly Memlekettik syilyq berildi.

Sodan bastap osy zúlmat jayly mәlimet jinaumen kelemin. Ásirese Parlament Mәjilisining deputaty bolghan jyldary kóp zerttedim. Atalghan nәubetke memleket biyligining nazaryn audarudy oilap, Respublikanyng Premier-ministrine ýsh ret deputattyq saualmen shyqtym. Alghash 2007 jyly.

«Biyl 1932 jylghy alapat ashtyqqa 75 jyl tolady, – dep bastalatyn búl saualdyng maqsaty Respublika Jogharghy Kenesi 1991 jyly qúrghan komissiyanyng sheshimi boyynsha qabyldanghan qaulyny qayta janghyrtu bolatyn. Esterinizde shyghar, 1992 jyly 31-mamyr «Asharshylyq qúrbandaryn eske alu kýni» dep belgilengen edi. Alayda nege ekeni júmbaq, búl kýn 1997jylgha deyin úmytyldy. Osy jyly «Sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandaryn eske alu kýni» týrinde alghash ret ataldy.

Osyghan oray deputattyq saualdyng sonynda: «Atajúrttyng azamattary! Dýnie jalghannan kýnirenip kóshken milliondardyng ruhyna taghzym etip, respublikalyq dengeyde eske alayyq! Qúrban aitta Qúran baghyshtayyq. Qorlyqpen ótken beybaqtardyng ruhy ýshin! Tarihy sananyng sabaqtastyghy ýshin! – dep ótingem.

Osy úsynys-talapty iltifatqa aldyrtamyn dep Mәjilisting basshylaryna da, «Núr Otan» partiyasynyng sondaghy fraksiyasyna da, Ýkimet jetekshilerine de bardym.

Kózim mynaghan jetti: biylik ókilderi milliondardy jalmaghan zúlmatqa resmy mәn berip, jekedara atap ótuge qúlyqsyz. Ótinish-tilegim qanaghattandyrylmady.

Sol kýnderi mynanday oy mazalaytyn: Rossiya Federasiyasy Qazaqstan men Ukrainadaghy asharshylyqty kommunistik diktaturanyng osy elderge qarsy qasaqana jasaghan qatygezdigi dep tanyluyn qalamaydy. Sebebi – onday jaghdayda atalghan respublikalargha moralidyq-materialdyq qaryz bolyp qalady. Mәselen, Germaniya Federaldyq Respublikasynyng fashistik Germaniya evreylerdi milliondap qyrghany ýshin Izrailige aiyp tólep kelgeni sekildi. Osyny oilap, bizding tarapqa: – Tarihty qozghap qaytesinder, qazbalamandar, – deui mýmkin ghoy.

h h h

Búl kýdik 2010 jylghy әreketimnen song kýsheye týsti.

Osy jylghy sәuirde Europa kenesi Parlamenttik Assambleyasy Kenes odaghy respublikalarynda 30-shy jyldarda bolghan jappay ashtyq qúrbandaryn eske alu turaly rezolusiya qabyldaghan edi. Onda: «Belorussiya, Qazaqstan, Moldaviya, Rossiya men Ukrainanyng milliondaghan adamy Kenes Ýkimetining qatygez sayasatynyng saldary bolyp tabylatyn jappay asharshylyqta kóz júmdy» – delingen.

Osyny negizge ala otyryp Premier-ministrge zardaby «Aqtaban shúbyryndydan da» asyp týsetin qasiret qúrbandaryna últ bolyp taghzym eteyik degen úsynyspen taghy da shyqtym. Sol kezdegi Ýkimet basshysy Kәrim Mәsimovten tómendegidey jauap keldi.

«Azamattardy «ashtyq qúrbandary» dep jana sanatqa jatqyzu, әleumettik kepildikter beru memlekettik budjetten qosymsha qarajat bóludi talap etedi, – delingen onda. – Búl orayda qarjy shyghyndaryn aiqyndau ýshin ashtyq qúrbandary dep tanylghan adamdardyng naqty sanyn anyqtau mýmkin emes. Sondyqtan 31-mamyr kýnin «Jappay qughyn-sýrgin jәne ashtyq qúrbandaryn eske alu kýni» dep qayta rәsimdeu mәselesi qúqyqtyq túrghydan jan-jaqty pysyqtaudy qajet etedi».

Búghan qanaghattana almadym. Sebebi, birinshiden, asharshylyqta kóz júmghandar ýshin el ótemaqy súrap otyrghan joq. Ekinshiden, zúlmat qúrbandarynyng sanyn anyqtau qoldan kelmeytin sharua emes. Ýshinshiden, jappay qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandarynyng sany qansha ekeni naqty әri tolyq anyqtalmasa da olardy eske alu kýnin resmy atap ótip jýrmiz ghoy.

h h h

Jyljyp 2012 jyl da keldi. 32-shi jylghy asharshylyqqa 80 jyl tolmaq.

Búl kezde Parlament Mәjilisindegi Áleumettik-mәdeny damu komiytetining tórayymy Darigha Nazarbaeva edi. Sol kisige bardym. Asharshylyq jayly derekterdi aita kelip: – Osy nәubetke arnalghan respublikalyq ghylymiy-praktikalyq konferensiya ótkizeyik, – dedim.

– Aytqan derekterinizdi jazbasha beriniz, – dedi.

Sol kýni bәrin ret-retimen tizip qolyna ústattym.

Arada eki-ýsh kýn ótkende shaqyrdy.

– Konferensiyany ótkizeyik, josparyn berseniz, – dedi. – Negizi bayandama Mәjilisten boluy kerek, siz jasanyz.

Mine, osylay qazaq Parlamentining tarihynda alghash ret asharshylyq turaly respublikalyq auqymdaghy konferensiya úiymdastyryldy. Oghan qos palatanyng deputattary, tarihshylar men sayasatkerler, týrli qoghamdyq úiymdardyng ókilderi, jurnalister qatysty.

Konferensiyany Darigha kirispe sózben ashty. Negizgi bayandamadan song Qazaqstan tarihy institutynyng diyrektory, ghylym doktory Býrkit Ayaghan, osy zúlmatty zerttep jýrgen basqa da tarihshylar men qalamgerler oilaryn ortagha saldy. Ondaghan adam jaryssózge qatysty.

Respublika Ýkimetine ýsh úsynys-talap qabyldandy.

Birinshi, 31-mamyrdy resmy týrde «Jappay qughyn-sýrgin jәne asharshylyq qúrbandaryn eske alu kýni» dep jariyalau.

Ekinshi, Asharshylyq qúrbandaryna Astana men Almaty qalalarynda eskertkish túrghyzu.

Ýshinshi, Asharshylyqtyng sebep-saldaryn anyqtau jónindegi ghylymiy-zertteu júmystaryn jalghastyru.

Quanyshymyzgha qaray búl úsynys-talaptar derlik qabyl alyndy.

Shyndyghyn aitu kerek, búghan atalghan konferensiyanyng parlamentte Darigha Nazarbaevanyng jetekshiligimen úiymdastyryluy yqpal etkeni anyq.

Osy is-sharadan song BAQ arqyly qúlaqtanghan el alghysyn jaudyryp jatty.

II. Qansha qazaq bolghan?

Asharshylyq jyldarynda kóz júmghandardyng sanyn neghúrlym dәl anyqtau ýshin soghan deyin respublika territoriyasynda qansha qazaq túrghanyn naqty biluimiz kerek. Al tarihshylar men bylayghy zertteushiler keltirip jýrgen derekter әrqily. Olardyng keybiri jobagha kelse, keybiri negizsiz.

Mening qolyma týsken derekterding kónesi – Europa tarihshysy Uiliyam Kertisting deregi. Ol «Týrkistan – Aziya jýregi» atty enbeginde: «HVIII ghasyrdyng ayaghynda qazaqtardyng sany 2 milliongha jetti, olardyng 300 mynday әskeri boldy» – deydi (K.Esmaghanbetov «Qazaqstan shetel әdebiyetinde», 36-bet).

Halqymyzdyng sany jónindegi búdan keyingi mәlimetti Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng «Sot reformasy jayynda hat» degen maqalasynan taptym. «Rossiya imperiyasynyng qúramyna enip otyrghan barlyq búratana taypalardyng ishinde halyqtyng sanynyng kóptiginen, baylyghy jóninen biz birinshi oryn alamyz, – dep jazady ol. – Meninshe aldaghy órkendeu de bizding qazaqtyng ýlesine tiyedi. Biz úlanghayyr territoriyany alyp jatyrmyz. Biz orys qol astynda 800 mynday bolsaq, әli oghan baghynbaghan tumalarymyzben millionnan astambyz. Al Europa Rossiyasyndaghy barlyq tatarlardy, oghan bashqúrt, noghaylardy, Bókey ordasyndaghy qazaqtardy qosqanda 1 milliongha azar jetedi». «Tandamaly. Almaty. Jazushy. 1995 jyl. 129-130 better).

Maqala 1864 jylghy 26 aqpanda jazylghan.

Ár baylam men derekke asa jauapkershilikpen qaraytyn Shoqan búl mәlimetti aspannan ala salmaghan. Orys imperiyasynda dýrkin-dýrkin bolyp túrghan sanaqtardyng qorytyndylaryna jýgingen. Al Rossiya biyligi qol astyndaghy úsaq últtardyng qatary qansha ekenin barynsha dәl biluge tyrysady. Sebebi, búlardyng arasynda qanday sayasat jýrgizetindigin olardyng sanyna qaray anyqtaydy.

Osy eki derekten neni angharamyz?

Qazaq halqy Jonghar shapqynshylyghy, «Aqtaban shúbyryndyda» azayghan. Maydan dalasynda kóz júmdy, – joqtyq, júqpaly indet myndaghan adamnyng ómirin qidy. Uiliyam Kertis atap kórsetken 2 million jannyng jartysy qalghan.

h h h

Qolgha búlardan keyin týsken derekter jýrisinnen janyldyrady. Qay jerden alynghan, qanday qújat-dәiekterden tabylghan, birde aitylady, birde joq. Tapqan mәlimetterin saralamay, salystyrmay osy ghana dúrys deytinder de bar.

Sonymen mәlimetter ne deydi?

1860 jyly Surihte «Shyghys әielderi» degen atpen fransuz tilinde jaryq kórgen eki tomdyq enbekte: «HIH ghasyrdyng 30-40 jyldarynda qazaqtardyng sany 2-2,4 million boldy» delinedi («Qazaqtar shetel әdebiyetinde», 36-bet). Sonda Shoqan Uәlihanovtyng deregi kýmәndi me? Álde sheteldik zertteushiler qatelesip otyr ma? Bәlkim Shoqan qazaq dalasyndaghy aghayyndardy, al europalyq tarihshylar jalpy Orta Aziyadaghy qandastarymyzdy tútas qamtyp otyrghan shyghar?

Teginde solay siyaqty.

Mine osydan song elding sany jayly derekterding ala-qúlalyghy kóbeyedi.

Etnograf M.Cheplika qazaq pen qyrghyzdy qosyp eseptep 4,1 milliongha jetkizgen. Al belgili tarihshy N.E.Bekmahanovtyng mәlimeti boyynsha HIH ghasyrdyng 70-shi jyldarynyng ayaghyna qaray Aqmola, Oral, Syrdariya, Torghay, Semey, Jetisu oblystary men kórshiles audandarda 2 million 499 100 qazaq bolghan. Ghalym kezekti dereginde qazaq túrghan ónirlerdi keneytedi. Jalpy alghanda, Rossiya imperiyasynda (Qyrghyzstan, Qazaqstan, Tómengi Edil, Ontýstik Ural men Sibirde), – deydi ol, – 1897 jyly –3 million 881 000; 1915 jyly – 4 million 678 800; 1917 jyly – 4 mln 061 myng qazaq túrghan; («Kapitalizm dәuirindegi Qazaqstan men Qyrghyzstannyng kóp últty halqy», 37-bet).

Endi L.N.Asylbekov pen A.B.Galiyevting «Sosialino-demokraticheskie prosessy v Kazahstane» (1917-1980 gg.) degen enbegine nazar audarayyq. Odan mynanday joldardy oqimyz: «1897 godu po dannym N.V.Alekseenko, G.K.Krongardt, F.N.Bazanovoy y dr. sostavlennym na osnove svedeniy vseobshey perepisy naselenie Rossiyskoy imperiy 1897 god, kazahy – 3 392 800; russkie – 454 800, drugie nasionalinosty – 300 600 chelovek (Pervaya vseobshaya perepisi naseleniya Rossiyaskoy imperiy 1897 g. G.H.Tetradi 2. Str.42).

Osylardyng qaysyna toqtaymyz?

Meninshe, songhysyna! Naqty resmy qújatpen rastalghan alghashqy imperiyalyq sanaqtyng deregine jýgingen jón. 1897 jyly óz jerinde qazaqtar 3 392 800 bolghan.

h h h

Endi keltirilgen derekterdi qorytyp zerdeleyik.

Shoqan Uәlihanov 1864 jyly 1 millionday dep jobalaghan qazaq aragha 33 jyl salyp qataryn edәuir qalyndatqan. Tabighy ósimmen birge Jonghar shapqynshylyghynda ózbek, qyrghyz, basqa da elderge aughandar elge oralyp, solarmen jәne tolyqqan.

h h h

Búdan keyingi naqty resmy negizdelgen derekti Alash kósemi Álihan Bókeyhan keltiredi. Ol «Qazaq» gazetining 1913 jylghy №8 sanynda jariyalanghan maqalasynda bylay dep jazady: «Bizding qazaq balasy orys patshasynyng qalasynda myna 9 oblys, 1 guberniyada:

  1. Semey oblysynda – 655 971 adam
  2. Aqmola oblysynda – 484 654 adam
  3. Torghay oblysynda – 422 401 adam
  4. Oral oblysynda – 466 000 adam
  5. Zakaspiy oblysynda – 71 367 adam
  6. Syrdariya oblysynda – 888 000 adam
  7. Jetisu oblysynda – 844 405 adam
  8. Ferghan oblysynda – 374 981 adam
  9. Samarqand oblysynda – 79 038 adam
  10. Astrahan guberniyasynda – 213 000 adam.

Bәri, búl 1908 jylghy gubernator qúzyryndaghy esep, 4 million 624 myng adam» (Álihan Bókeyhan. Tolyq jinaghy III tom. Saryarqa 2009. 398-bet).

Osyndaghy Ferghan, Samarqand oblystary men Astrahan guberniyasyndaghy qazaqtardy bólek alyp qarasanyz – 666 019 adam bolady. Sonda qazaqtyng 1908 jyly óz territoriyasynda túrghandary – 4 006 981 jan. 1897 jylghy resmy sanaqtaghy kórsetkishke qosylghany – 614 181.

h h h

Injener-etnograf Múhametjan Tynyshbaevtyng býgingiler jii keltiretin deregin jogharydaghy mәlimettermen salystyrsanyz, dәieksiz bolyp kórinedi. Ol 1897 jylghy halyq sanaghynda qazaq jerinde 6 million adam boldy deydi. Ashtyqta sonyng 1 mln. 700 myny óldi, Qytay men Mongholiyagha 1 mln. 200 myny, irgeles respublikalargha 795 myny kóship ketti dep jәne qosady.

Kórip otyrsyzdar, Tynyshbaev 6 million qazaq dep otyrghan joq, sol tústa elde kimder túryp jatty, bәrin qosyp eseptegen.

Búl derekpen tanysqan Álihan Bókeyhan onyng dúrystyghyna kýmәn keltiripti. «Jana mektep» jurnalynyng 1925 jyly shyqqan №2 sanyndaghy «Sanaq pen júrtshylyq» atty maqalasynda: «Qazaq ózi turaly sóilegende «7-8 million qazaq edi» dep sóileydi. Kitap jazghan injener Tynyshbay balasy 5-6 million shamasy deydi. Múnyng qaysysyna nanasyn? Qay sandy qolgha alyp, qonystandyru júmysyna attanasyn?

Olay bolsa, Qazaqstandaghy adamnyng sanyn dúrys bilip almay túryp, eldi qonystandyryp bolmaydy, – deydi Áleken. – Búl esepting teristigine kim aiypty? Qazaq pa, Tynyshbay balasy ma? Ortalyq esep mekemesi me? Biri de aiypty emes. Búghan aiypty qazaqtyng Oktyabirden búrynghy... qojasy – Patsha ókimeti, Patsha ókimetining jalshylary – pereselen sheneunikteri. Qazaq qansha nadan, soqyr bolsa da «arbaghan súr jylannyn» shaghatynyn bilgen, esepke kelgen pereselen mekemesining sheneunikterine ótirikten basqany aitpaghan. Kóp ótirikpen qazaq shatasqan. Shatasqan qazaqtyng sanyn azaytyp, jerin kóbeytip, uchaskesin alyp sheneunikter de qayqayghan.

Oryspen, oryssha oqyghan tórelermen úshyrasqan jerde senbeu, ótirik aitu qazaqtyng boyyna singen. Sondyqtan Kenes ókimetining súraghan esebine bú kýnge deyin qazaq ótirik aitumen keledi. «Ókimet mata, astyq beredi» degen uaqytta, «jas balagha kiyim-tamaq beredi» degen uaqytta «esep bergen qazaq qatynyn qoyday qozdatqan. «Ókimet enbek qaryzyn (Trudovaya povinnosti) ótetedi» degen uaqytta, «sarqyt alar» degen uaqytta qazaq balasyn «shybynday qyrghan», úlyn qyz qylghan, 30 jasar balasyn 5 jasar, 5 jasar balasyn 40 jasar qylghan. Osy qualaghan ótirikting nәtiyjesin «qúshaqtap» Tynyshbayúly otyr.

Qazaqtyng sany kóp pe, az ba? Búl ekinshi mәsele. Tynyshbayúlynyn, joldas Siriustyn, Esep mekemesining qúshaqtap otyrghan sipyrlary (sifrlary) ótirik» (Álihan Bókeyhan. Shygharmalarynyng tolyq jinaghy. Astana. Saryarqa baspasy. 2013 j. IH tom. 170-bet).

h h h

Osydan keyin dәieksiz derekterdi qozghay beruding qajeti joq. Alayda asharshylyq qúrbandaryn kóbeyte týskisi keletinder aqylgha qonbaytyn mәlimetterge ýiir.

Jazushy Smaghúl Elubay sýienip jýrgen Chuloshnikov degenning 8 milliony, Tabyl Qúliyasov Mogalevtyng kitabynan aldym deytin 8-12 milliony qiyaldan tughan deuge keletin boljamdar. Eger osynsha qazaq revolusiyanyng aldynda shynymenen ghúmyr keshse, belgili etnograf Maqash Tәtimov qalay ghana: «1916 jyldyng ortasynda, últ-azattyq kóterilisi bastalghanda jalpy qazaqtyng sany 5 mln. 600 myng adamgha jetken bolatyn» – dep kórsetedi.

Ghalymnyng dәleldeuinshe: «1916 jylghy kóterilis, aqpan, qazaq tónkerisi, azamat soghysy jyldarynda sharuashylyqtardyng kýizeliske, asharshylyqqa dushar boluynan 950 myng qazaq, elding 18-19 prosenti opat boldy. 7-8 prosenti, 480 myny shetelge audy. Sóitip qazaqtyng sany 1 mln. 350 myngha kemidi. («Qazaq», Almaty. Bilim. 1994 j. 65-70 better).

Maqash Tәtimov osylay dese, N.E.Masanov J.B.Abylhojiyn, IY.V.Erofeeva, A.N.Alekseenko, G.S.Baratovalardyng avtorlyghymen jaryq kórgen «Istoriya Kazahstana. Narody y kulitury» akademiyalyq enbektegi resmy derek, onymen ýilespeydi. Onda: «Pered prevoy mirovoy voynoy chislennosti naseleniya Kazahstana postoyanno vozrastala za schet pritoka pereselencheskogo krestiyanstva. Y esly 1911 g. ona sostoavlyala 5 mln. 408 100 chelovek, za gody pervoy voyny chislennosti naseleniya Kazahstana neskoliko sokratilasi, y v 1917 g. zdesi projivalo 5 mln. 753 500 chelovek» delingen (Almaty. 2001. 367 bet).

Múnda qazaqtyng sany kórsetilmegen, Maqash osy jalpy sandy qazaqqa teligen sekildi.

Al shyn derekti, tónkeris jylynda qazaq qansha bolghanyn 1917 jylghy sanaqtyng qorytyndysynan bilemiz. Búl sanaq «Kolichestvo kirgiyz-kazakov na 1917god. Po rodam y uezdam» dep atalady.

Osy jyly Dulat – 460 myn, Alban – 80 myn, Suan – 40 myn, Sary Ýisin – 10 myn, Shapyrashty – 70 myn, Ysty – 50 myn, Oshaqty – 70 myn, Qanly men Shanyshqyly – 190 myn, Sirgeli – 70 myn, Jalayyr – 130 myng bolypty.

Orta Jýzge kelsek, Arghyn – 890 myn, Nayman – 530 myn, Qypshaq – 160 myn, Kerey – 160 myn, Uaq – 70 myn, Qonyrat – 210 myn.

Kishi jýz: Bayúly – 880 myn, Álimúly – 530 myn, Jetiru – 350 myn.

Bәrin qosqanda – 4 million 980 myn.

Sanaqta Rossiya imperiyasyna engen elderdegi qazaqtyng sany da kórsetilgen. Solardy qossaq 5 million 480 myng bolady. Osy tústa Qytayda 450 myng qandasymyz túrypty.

Jiyntyq san – 5 million 930 myn.

Asharshylyqtyng aldynda eldegi qazaq qansha boldy degen saualgha naqty jauap osy.


Jalghasy bar...

Aldan Smayyl: Tәuelsizdigimizdi bayandy ete bilgenimiz – ýlken erlik | TÚRKISTAN

Aldan Smayyl,

jazushy, Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Memlekettik syilyq laureaty

Abai.kz

12 pikir