Dýisenbi, 19 Sәuir 2021
2112 11 pikir 26 Jeltoqsan, 2020 saghat 14:04

Qytay gharyshtyq derjavagha ainala ma?..

Jyl sayyn gharyshty ózining geosayasy mýddelerining aimaghy retinde qarastyratyn memleketter sany artyp keletini ras. Solardyng biri - Qytay Halyq Respublikasy.

Qytaydyng gharyshtyq baghdarlamasyn az-kem tanu ýshin ejelgi qytay filosofiyasyna ýnilgen jón bolar. Múnda «gharysh» Qytay imperiyasy túrghyndarynyng dýniyetanymy men kózqarasynda manyzdy ról atqarady. Materialdyq jәne ruhanilyqqa qarsy túru Qytay mәdeniyetine jat bolghandyqtan, olardaghy adamnyn  ghalam týsinigi ýilesimdi keledi. Bir jaghynan, adam qytay dәstýrinde gharysh әlemining jaratylystary retinde qarastyrylady, al ekinshi jaghynan, ol bәrinen erekshelenedi jәne әlemning basym kýshteri - Aspan men Jermen tenestiriledi. Osylay ghalamdyq gharyshtyq ýshtik (san say) qalyptasady - Aspan, Jer jәne Adam. Adam búl jerde Aspan men Jerdi biriktiredi, búl týsinik boyynsha Adam - ​​mikrokosm («kishi Aspan men Jer» - syayu tien di), ol tabighattyng barlyq aluan týrliligin kórsetedi. Mikrokosm bola otyryp, adam óz kezeginde әlemdi modelideuge qabiletti, sol arqyly modeliderding әr týrli tipterin - mikrokosmdardy tudyrady (Torchinov E.A.)

Sondyqtan olardyng gharyshtyq derjavagha ainaluy býginde eshkimdi tanqaldyrmauy kerek. Eger shamamen elu jyl búryn Kenes ókimeti gazetterde Qytaydyng tehnikalyq damu perspektivasyna kýmәn keltirip, karikaturalar shygharyp, mazaq etken bolsa (jýz million qytaylyq ýlken rogatkany ústap túrady, basqa jýz million qytaylyq ony oqtap túrady),  onda býginde Qytay әlemdik gharysh salasynda jetekshi oryndy iyelenip otyr.

Búl mazaq 1990 jyldardyng basyna deyin jalghasty, sebebi sol uaqytta Qytay ózining pilottyq baghdarlamasy boyynsha júmys istey bastady. Sodan keyin, «Shenichjou» gharysh kemesining prototiypining kezekti sәtsiz synaghynan keyin amerikandyq sarapshylar «keybir elder gharyshta úshudy ýirene almaydy, al Qytay gharysh kemesi siyaqty kýrdeli jabdyqty mýldem iygere almaydy» degen bolatyn. Alayda, bir kezderi skeptisizm men mazaqtyng taqyryby bolghan nәrse 2003 jyly shyndyqqa ainaldy. «Shenichjou-5» orbitagha Yan Liyvey esimdi «taykonavtpen» (Qytayda gharyshkerlerdi osylay ataydy) endi. Bes jyldan keyin, 2008 jyly «Shenichjou-7» basqarylatyn gharysh kemesining úshuy kezinde taykonavttar gharysh kenistigine shyqty, búl qytaylyqtardyng ýshinshi kemesi edi. Sodan beri 20 jylgha juyq uaqyt ótti jәne «Shenichjoudyn» kezekti starty endi eshkimdi tanqaldyrmaydy. Ayta ketu kerek, Qytaydyng gharyshtyq jetistikteri kenestik jәne amerikandyq astronavtikanyng arqasynda mýmkin boldy, olardyng ghylymy jetistikteri kýnshyghys eline qysqa merzimde ong nәtiyjelerge qol jetkizuge mýmkindik berdi.

Býginde әlemde gharysh salasynyng negizgi bes drayveri bar. Birinshisi - shyghyndardy tómendetuge mýmkindik tughyzatyn tehnologiyalar (mysaly, jana materialdar, gharysh apparattaryna arnalghan komponentterding prototipteri (SK), ulitra jenil zymyran tasyghyshtar, gharysh apparattaryn miniaturizasiyalau). Ekinshisi - jeke investisiyalar ýlesining artuy. Ýshinshisi - Big Data-gha tәueldiligi artyp kele jatqan әlemdik ekonomika. Tórtinshiden, gharysh qyzmetin ekonomikalyq ósuding kózi retinde qarastyru. Besinshi - әskery jәne strategiyalyq damu. Osy bes baghyttyng barlyghy qazirgi kezdegi Qytaydyng gharysh salasynyng qanqasyn qúraydy.

2011 jyldan bastap Pekin gharyshty «mekendeumen» tyghyz ainalysa bastady. «Tyanigun-1» («Aspan sarayy-1») úzaq merzimdi orbitalyq stansiyanyng (DOS) prototip moduli orbitagha shyqty. Avtomattyq «Shenichjou-8» oghan birneshe ret qondy, qonugha jәne qondyru manevrlaryna mashyqtandy. Tórtinshi - «Shenichjou-9» 2012 jyly gharyshqa ýsh taikonavtty jetkizdi, olardyng qatarynda әiel adam da boldy. Búl kemening ekipajy Tyanigun-1 stansiyasyna qonyp, bortta 10 kýn boldy. 2013 jyldyng 11 mausymynda gharyshqa úshyrylghan «Shenichjou-10» ekipajy ýsh taykonavttan qúraldy jәne qaytadan qatarlarynda әiel adam boldy, «Shenichjou-9» tútastay qytaylyq gharyshtyq baghdarlamanyng jetistigin nyghaytty.

QHR qazirgi әlemde ózining ghylymy men tehnologiyasyn damytpaytyn memleketting bolashaghy joq ekenin jaqsy biledi. Quatty gharysh industriyasy eleuli gharyshtyq jetistikterding kómegimen memleketting bedelin kóteru siyaqty óte manyzdy ról atqarady. Mәselen, 2016 jyly Qytay әlemdegi alghashqy ejelgi qytay oishyldarynyng biri «Mo Szy» atyndaghy kvanttyq aqparatty taratugha arnalghan jer serigin úshyrdy. Búl jobanyng qúny 100 million dollargha baghalanghan. Bir qyzyghy, jerserikten berilgen mәlimetter ústap alugha nemese kóshiruge bolmaytyn fotondar qatarynda boldy. Kóshiruge tyrysudyng kez-kelgen әreketi olardyng ózin-ózi jongyna әkeledi.

Qytay býginde gharyshtaghy basym kýsh retinde Amerika Qúrama Shtattarynyng ornyn basudy maqsat etip otyr. Defence News amerikandyq basylymy atap ótkendey, Pekinning tez ósip kele jatqan gharyshtyq mýmkindikteri aiqyn. Kóptegen sarapshylardyng pikirinshe, eger Pekin jaqyn jәne tereng gharyshty iygeru salasyndaghy óz qabiletterin arttyrudyng osynday qarqynyn saqtay bilse, onda aldaghy uaqytta Qytay Amerika Qúrama Shtattaryn basyp ozyp, nómiri birinshi gharyshtyq derjavagha ainalady.

2020 jyly býkil әlemning qozghalysyn COVID-19 tejegen kezde, Qytay Jerge jaqyn jәne tereng kenistikke manyzdy qadam jasady. 2020 jyly 5 mamyrda Qytay Venchan kosmodromynan (Ontýstik Qytay, Haynani provinsiyasy) Long March-5B (Long March 5B, Changzheng-5B) zymyran tasyghyshyn paydalanyp qytaylyq jana tiptegi gharysh apparattarynyng synaq núsqasyn sәtti úshyrdy. Zymyrannyng sәtti úshyryluy 2022 jyly ayaqtalady dep josparlanghan Qytaydyng orbitalyq gharysh stansiyasynyng berik negizin qalady. Halyqaralyq gharysh stansiyasy (HGhS) iske jaramsyz bolghan kezde ol Jer orbitasyndaghy jalghyz stansiyagha ainalady. Kópmodulidi orbitalyq stansiyanyng qúryluynyng arqasynda Qytay әlem orbitasynda óz azamattary túraqtanghan ýshinshi әlemdik derjavagha ainalady. Qytay gharyshty iygeruding jana dәuirin bastaydy jәne halyqaralyq yntymaqtastyqty keneytedi.

Sonymen qatar, Qytay Ay men Marsqa pilottyq úshular josparyn qúruda. 2020 jyly 24 qarashada Qytay Change-5 aidyng zondtyq zatyn úshyrdy (Chane - qytay mifologiyasyndaghy ay qúdayy). Missiyanyng maqsaty - Jerge 2 kilogramm ay topyraghyn jetkizu (búl 2020 jyldyng jeltoqsan aiynyng ortasynda jasalghan), al 2030 jylgha qaray Ayda zertteu stansiyasyn salu. Búdan keyin Marsqa da jiberiledi, Marsty qytaylyqtar «otty júldyz» dep ataydy. Mysaly, 2020 jyldyng 23 shildesinde Pekin Marsqa «Tyaniven-1» missiyasyn jiberdi. Baghdarlamanyng maqsaty - Marstaghy ómirding qazirgi kezenindegi, búghan deyingi uaqytyndaghy tirshilikti izdeu, qorshaghan ortany zertteu. «Tyaniven-1»  «otty júldyzgha» 2021 jyldyng aqpan aiynda jetedi. Mars topyraghynyng ýlgilerin Jerge jetkizetin zondty 2030 jyly qayta jiberu josparlanuda. 2050 jylgha qaray qytay ghalymdary Marsqa basqarylatyn missiya jiberedi dep kýtip otyr. Oghan dayyndyq bastalyp ta ketti.

Ay men Marsty qarqyndy zertteu elge Qytay Halyq Respublikasynyng Tóraghasy Sy Szinipin birneshe ret aitqan «adamzattyng ortaq taghdyry» tújyrymdamasyn jýzege asyrugha kómektesedi. Býkil әlem bolyp bas qosyp, jabylyp gharyshty iygermese, bir ghana elge qiyn bolatynyn kóbisi týsinedi. Qytay gharysh stansiyasy neghúrlym tezirek salynsa, adamdar soghúrlym jaqyn ghalamsharlardy tezirek iygere alady.

Songhy jyldary Qytay gharysh apparattaryn sәtti úshyru sany boyynsha әlemdik kóshbasshygha ainaldy. Búl QHR-dyng aldynghy qatarly tehnologiyalarynyng demonstrasiyasyn aiqyn beyneleydi. 2020 jyldyng 31 nauryzyndaghy jaghday boyynsha 363 qytaylyq tehnika Jerding ainalasyndaghy orbitany ainalyp ótti (búghan deyin búnday masshtab tek AQSh-ta ghana bolghan).

Sonymen, 2020 jyly 23 mausymda Qytay osy orbitalyq shoqjúldyzdyng «jabylatyn» sputniygin úshyru arqyly ózining «Beydu» ghalamdyq pozisiyalau jýiesin qúrudy ayaqtady. Beydu Reseyding GLONASS, amerikandyq GPS jәne europalyq Galiyleymen qatar tórtinshi jahandyq pozisiyalau jýiesi boldy. 2000 jyly ghana QHR jahandyq pozisiyalau jýiesin qúra bastaghan edi, al 2012 jyldyng jeltoqsan aiynan bastap ol Aziya-Tynyq múhity aimaghynda, jәne 2018 jyldan bastap әlemdik auqymda qyzmet kórsete bastady.

Jogharyda aitylghandardan bólek 2010 j. Qytay gharyshtyq kommersiyalyq zertteuge yqpal ete bastady. Gharyshtyq tehnologiyalar boljammen 2012 jyldan bastap QHR-dyng eng birinshi prioriytetterining qatarynda. Al naqty 2015-2016 jyldary QHR-nyng joghary jәne joghary dengeylerindegi qújattarynda. 13-shi besjyldyqta - strategiyalyq perspektivalyq industriyalardyng prioriytetteri retinde bekitilgen, sonymen qatar «Qytayda jasalghan 2025» baghdarlamasyna da engen.

Ilon Mask pen ol basqarghan SpaceX kompaniyasynyng jetistikteri Qytay basshylyghyn ózderining kommersiyalyq gharysh salasyn damytu mәselesin zertteuge motivasiya boldy. Qazirgi kezde jәne jaqyn arada QHR ýshin kommersiyalyq gharysh salasynyng maqsatty toby - búl «Belbeu jәne jol» elderining naryqtary (atap aitqanda, baylanys jәne navigasiya sputnikteri jelisin damytu shenberinde), osy uaqytqa deyin búl túrghyda shaghyn memlekettik qoldau jýzege asyryluda, biraq «Belbeudegi» elder ýshin shenberlik gharyshtyq inisiativalardyng arqasynda búl qarjylandyru edәuir ese kóbengi kerek. Bolashaqtaghy segmentting internasionaldanuynyng yqtimal drayveri «Belbeu jәne joldan» tys elderde gharysh qyzmetteri naryghyna shyghugha shekteulerding bolmauy mýmkin. Kliyentterding taghy bir toby - damushy elder, yaghny batys kompaniyalarynyng qymbat qyzmetterin ala almaytyn kliyentter.

Kórip otyrghanymyzday, gharyshtyq epostyng bastaluynan bastap otyz jylgha juyq uaqyt ishinde Qytay orasan zor jetistikterge jetti. Súraq ózdiginen tuyndaydy: Búl qalay mýmkin bolady?.. Búl ózara baylanysty eki jaghdayda ghana mýmkin bolady. Birinshiden, eger bir jaghynan, elding basshylyghy, al ekinshi jaghynan, gharysh salasynyng basshylyghy búnyng qúndylyghyn kórip, olardy memleket mýddesine paydalanghysy keletin bolsa ghana!

Qazaqstan da, Ortalyq Aziyanyng basqa elderi de Qytaydyng gharysh salasyndaghy jetistikterine nazar audaruy kerek. Óitkeni bizding shyghys kórshimizding jetistikteri OA elderining gharysh salasyndaghy bar әleuetin is jýzinde iske asyrugha kómektesetin birlesken jobalardy jasaugha mýmkindik beredi.

Osylaysha, Qazaqstannyng gharyshtyq marshruty aiqyndalady. 30 jylday búryn elde gharysh qyzmetin damytu jónindegi memlekettik organ - Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Últtyq aerogharysh agenttigi qúryldy (1993 j. 25 aqpan). 2007 jyldyng nauryzynda ol Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Últtyq gharysh agenttigine (Qazgharysh) ainaldy. Osy uaqyt aralyghynda qazaqstandyq gharyshkerlerding adam basqaratyn gharysh baghdarlamasyna belsendi qatysuynan, gharyshtaghy zertteulerge arnalghan birneshe ghylymy baghdarlamalardy jýzege asyrudan, Bayqonyr gharysh keshenin jalgha beru men Qazgharyshtyng kәsiporyndaryn qúrudan bastap, gharysh salasyn qúru, halyqaralyq yntymaqtastyqty keneytu, damytu, gharyshtyq tehnologiyalardy paydalanu jәne t.b. jobalaryn jýzege asyrdy.

«Gharysh qyzmeti turaly» Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Zany qabyldanghannan jәne qol qoyylghannan keyingi on jyl ishinde (2011-2012 jj.) Zamanauy gharyshtyq infraqúrylym qúryldy, gharysh tehnikasy men tehnologiyasynyng otandyq ýlgilerin jasauda ýlken serpilis jasaldy. Qúrylghan zamanauy gharyshtyq infraqúrylymdy elding ekonomikalyq salalarynyng mәselelerin sheshu, onyng gharysh jýielerining ónimderi men qyzmetterine ósip kele jatqan súranysyn qanaghattandyru ýshin tiyimdi paydalanu boyynsha auqymdy jәne qarqyndy júmys jýrgizilude.

2030 jylgha qaray Qazaqstannyng aldynda gharysh qyzmetterining әlemdik naryghynda óz ornyn keneytu jәne bastau alghan birqatar jobalardy iske asyru siyaqty mindetter túr (Astanadaghy gharysh apparattaryn qúrastyru jәne synau kesheni, gharyshtyq qashyqtyqtan zondtau jýiesi, gharyshtyq monitoringting últtyq jýiesi jәne jerýsti infraqúrylymy, joghary dәldiktegi sputniktik navigasiya jýiesi).

Qazaqstan gharyshtyq tehnologiyalardy otandyq ekonomikagha belsendi týrde ilgeriletude. Mәselen, Jer betinen 36 myng km qashyqtyqta Qazaqstanda eki geostasionarlyq jerserik bar: KazSat-2 jәne KazSat-3. Olar úyaly baylanys, teledidar jәne Internetke qatysty barlyq qyzmetterdi 100% qamtidy. Shalghaydaghy eldi mekenderdi baylanyspen qamtamasyz etedi. «Kosmos әlemi» jurnalynyng bas redaktory Qazbek Qazkenovtyng aituynsha: «Qazaqstannyng ózining gharyshtyq baghdarlamasy, ózining jer serikteri boluy elding qauipsizdigi birinshi orynda túrghanyn aiqyndaydy. Qazaqstan aumaghynda quatty Bayqonyr gharysh ailaghynyng boluy bizge qosymsha artyqshylyq beredi, búl bizding eldi osy saladaghy kóshbasshylardyng birine ainaldyrady». Alayda, búl onay emes.

Qazaqstandyq gharysh mәdeniyetining bolmauy Qazaqstannyng gharysh salasynyng damuyna kedergi keltiredi. Elimiz basqa elderden, tipti ózining qazirgi dengeyinen asyp týsemin dep talpynbaydy.  Gharysh taqyrybyn ózekti qylugha az kónil bólinedi. Qazirgi gharyshty iygeru turaly kóbirek bilu ýshin jana, qyzyqty resurstar jetispeydi. Býgingi tanda gharyshtyq jetistikterding nәtiyjeleri adamzat ómirining barlyq salalaryna әser etedi. Búl auyl sharuashylyghy, ekologiya jәne ekonomika bolsyn. Gharysh salasyna týrli joldardy qoldanyp, respublikamyz halyq sharuashylyghynyng jogharyda atalghan salalarymen baylanysty barlyq adamdardy tartu qajet.

Resey Bayqonyrdy jaldau merzimin 2050 jylgha deyin úzartqanyna qaramastan, ol erte me, kesh pe gharysh ailaghynan ketedi. Búl degenimiz, Qazaqstan qazirding ózinde qoldanystaghy infraqúrylymmen ne isteu kerektigin týsinui kerek. Áriyne, Qazaqstan ózining tehnikalyq tozuy oryn aluy mýmkin múnday qymbat keshendi óz betinshe qarjylandyra almaydy. Investorlardy tartu arqyly ony kezen-kezenimen modernizasiyalaudy bastau qajet. Alayda qazirgi uaqytta múnday baghdarlama joq. Býgingi kýnning shyndyqtary memleketting gharysh salasyndaghy monopoliyasy jaqyn bolashaqta ayaqtalatynyn kórsetedi. Naryqqa gharyshqa úshyrudyng arzan núsqalaryn úsynatyndar da kele bastady. Búl halyqaralyq gharysh biznesine, onyng ishinde Qazaqstangha da әser etpey qoymady. Osy jaghdaydaghy sheshimderding biri - Ortalyq Aziya elderining gharysh salasyn iske asyrugha birlesip qatysu. Mysaly, tek Qazaqstanda ghana Ghalamnyng evolusiyasy prosesterin zertteu, kýn-jer qatynastary fizikasy jәne Jerge jaqyn kenistiktegi dinamikalyq prosester siyaqty zertteuler jýrgizilude. Jana baghyttar payda boldy: jer qyrtysynyng jer-gharyshtyq geodinamikalyq jәne geofizikalyq monitoringi, tótenshe jaghdaylardy gharyshtyq baqylau әdisteri men tehnologiyalaryn qúru, gharysh apparattary, gharyshtyq baylanys jәne navigasiya ýshin tehnologiyalar men komponentterdi әzirleu jәne t.b.

Kórip otyrghanymyzday, kórsetilgen baghyttar Ortalyq Aziyanyng barlyq elderi ýshin manyzdy. Elimizding ekonomikasy men qauipsizdigi ýshin gharyshtyq tehnologiyalardy qúru men paydalanu boyynsha qoyylghan mindetterdi oryndau ýshin QHR-dan kómek artyq bolmas edi. Sonymen qatar, jogharyda aitylghanday, qytaylyq kommersiyalyq gharysh industriyasynyng maqsatty toby qazirgi uaqytta jәne jaqyn bolashaqta «Belbeu jәne Jol» elderining naryqtary bolyp tabylady. Berilgen mýmkindikterdi paydalanugha túrarlyq pa? Mening oiymsha, iyә. «Belbeu jәne jol» bastamasy - búl Qazaqstannyng jәne býkil Ortalyq Aziyanyng gharysh salasyn damytudyng taghy bir mýmkindigi, bizding ata-babalarymyz (әl-Abbas әl-Djauhari, Abu Rayhan әl-Biruni, Úlyqbek jәne t.b.) qazirgi kosmonavtika ghylymyna negiz bolghan óshpes iz qaldyrghan.

Erkin Baydarov,

filosofiya ghylymdarynyng kandidaty, R.B. Sýleymenova atyndaghy Shyghystanu Institutynyng jetekshi ghylymy qyzmetkeri

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