Beysenbi, 9 Jeltoqsan 2021
Alashorda 5151 6 pikir 12 Qazan, 2020 saghat 10:45

Qadisha, Shafiha, Gýlsim...

Músylman qyz-kelinshekter qozghalysynan

Qazaqtyng joghary bilimdi túnghysh dәriger qyzy Gýlsim Jaghyparqyzy (Gulisum Djafarovna) Asfendiarova 1880 jyly 12 qarashada Tashkentte dýniyege kelgen (biyl tughanyna 140 jyl tolady). Týrkistan general-gubernatorlyghynda әskery tәrjimeshi, ólkening jekelegen aimaghynda general-gubernatordyng ókili (namestniyk) bolyp istegen,  patsha armiyasynyng general-mayory sheninde 1916 jyly dogharysqa shyqqan, Búharalyq 1-shi dәrejeli Altyn júldyz ordenining iyegeri, Ábilqayyrhanúly Ayshuaq hannyng shóberesi Seyitjaghypar (Seyitjafar) Asfendiarovtyng qyzy.  Anasy Gýlәndәm Qasymova – Kenesary hannyng nemeresi. Basqa bauyrlary sekildi, Gýlsim de bastauysh bilimdi ýiinde alghan. Odan on jasynda Tashkent qyzdar gimnaziyasyna oqugha týsip, ony 1899 jyly bitirgen. Peterburgtegi qyz-kelinshekter ýshin ashylghan  medisina institutyn 1908 jyly tamamdaghan.

Institutty bitirisimen Gýlsim Asfendiarova imperator II Nikolaydyng atyna ótinish jazyp, Týrkistan әskery okrugynda qyzmet isteuge súranady. Ótinishi qanaghattandyrylyp, Týrkistan general-gubernatorlyghyna kelgennen son, Syrdariya oblysy Shymkent ýiezinde uchaskelik emshi, Namangan ýiezi Pap selolyq dәrigerlik uchaskesining dәrigeri, sosyn 1913 jyly Hiua qalalyq auruhanasy bas dәrigerining akusher-assiysenti bolyp istegen. Osynda ol Týrkistan ólkesinde túnghysh ret ana qúrsaghynan perzentti tilmemen alu (alghash 11-shi ghasyrda shyghys ghalymy Ál-Biruny tiyisti suretterimen jazyp qaldyrghan, 16-shy ghasyrda fransuz korolining saray dәrigeri ólim auzynda jatqan әiel qúrsaghyndaghy sәbiydi qútqaru ýshin qoldanghan, 19-shy ghasyrdan bastap sәtti jasala bastaghan, latynnyng «korolidik» jәne «tilim»  sózderinen «kesarevo secheniye» atauyn alghan) otasyn jasady.  1914 jyly Tashkentke oralyp, әkesining kómegimen otyz tósegi bar  әielder bosanatyn ýy (perzenthana) ashqan. Osy qyzmetinde jýrgeninde Gýlsim Jafarqyzynyng dәriger retindegi bedeli arta týsti, úzamay Tashkent qalalyq auruhanalarynyng birine bas dәriger bolyp taghayyndaldy. Bilikti emshiligimen de, әleumettik azattyq iydeyasyn jaqtaytyn qoghamdyq belsendiligimen qazaqtyng alghashqy dәriger qyzy Gýlsim ólkede qúrmetke bólenip, kópke tanyldy. Aqpan revolusiyasynan keyin, Qazan qalasynda ótpek músylman qyz-kelinshekter sezin úiymdastyru burosyna mýshe boldy, kópshilikting qalauymen sezge delegat bolyp saylandy...

Reseydegi 1905–1907 jyldarghy Birinshi, 1917 jylghy Ekinshi (Aqpan) orys revolusiyalary músylman qyz-kelinshekterine de oqugha, bilim alugha úmtyltqan silkinis әkelgeni mәlim. Olar imperiyanyng europalyq bóliginde ghana emes, Qazaq dalasynda da, Týrkistan ólkesinde de  oyanyp, kóbi aghartu salasynda enbek etti. Bilim dәrejeleri artyp, dýniyetanymdary keneygen sayyn sayasy qyzmetke de bet búrdy. Birinshi revolusiyadan beri jer-jerde әielder komiytetteri qúrylyp jatqan. Áyelder mәselesin, olardyng әleumettik-ekonomikalyq jәne qoghamdaghy jaghdayyn sheshudi, әielding ar-namysy men abyroyyn qorlaytyn әdetterge qarsy kýresudi Qyrymdaghy әigili aghartushy Ysmayyl Gaspralynyng 1886 jyly tughan qyzy Shafiha (Shafika, Shefika Gasprinskaya) ómirining mәnine ainaldyrghan bolatyn. Ol әkesimen birge jastay «Tәrjiman» gazetinde istedi. 1905 jyly әkesi «Tәrjimannyn» qosymshasy retinde ashqan «Álem-iy-nisvan» («Áyel әlemi») jurnalynyng redaktory boldy. Búl qyz-kelinshekterding bilim aluy men ruhany damuyna atsalysudy maqsat etken aptalyq ghylymiy-әdeby basylym edi. Gazet te, jurnal da Reseyding týrli aimaghyndaghy qyz-kelinshekterding kózin ashuda, olardyng jer-jerde óz qoghamdaryn qúrularyna  týrtki bolyp, kóp enbek sinirdi. Qyzbalalar ýshin auruhanalar, mektepke deyingi mekemeler, mektepter ashu mәselelerin Shafiha Gaspraly údayy aityp ta, jazyp ta jýruden jalyqqan emes.  Qyz-kelinshekterding әleumettik-ekonomikalyq jәne qoghamdyq ómirdegi jaghdayyn jaqsartudy, olardy  mәdeni-aghartushylyq qyzmetpen qamtudy  kózdeytin arnayy baghdarlama da úsyndy. Ol әielderdi kemsitetin eski әdet-ghúryptyng barshasyn ótkenge qaldyru, on alty jasqa tolmaghan qyzbalalardy kýieuge beruge tyiym salu qajettigin qyzu kóterdi. Aqpan revolusiyasynan keyin Shafiha Qazandaghy qyz-kelinshekter sezine, Qyrym delegasiyasy qúramynda Mәskeudegi Býkilreseylik músylman sezine qatysqan. Al Qazan revolusiyasynan song ol Baqshasaraydaghy Qyrym-tatar halqynyng birinshi qúryltayyna delegat boldy. Qyrym-tatar últtyq ýkimeti ony Simferopolidegi qyzdar pedagogikalyq uchiliyshesining diyrektory etip taghayyndady. Alayda últtyq ýkimet qúlatyldy da, Shafiha Qyrymnan ketip, Bakuge bardy, sonda pedagogika uchiliyshesin úiymdastyrdy. Sol jaqta ol Ázirbayjan Respublikasynyng premier-ministri Nәsipbek Ýsýpbekovke túrmysqa shyghady. Úzamay sovet ókimeti Ázirbayjan halqynyng últtyq ýkimetin qúlatyp, premier-ministrin atyp tastaydy. Sonda Shafiha Týrkiya asyp ketedi. Stambulda jetim balalar ýiining mengerushisi bolady. 30-shy jyldary «Qyrym-tatar әielderining odaghyn» qúrady, keyinirek qyrym-tatar emigranttary mәselelerimen jәne qayyrymdylyq sharalaryn úiymdastyrumen shúghyldanady. 1975 jyly, jasy 89-gha qaraghan shaghynda dýniyeden ozghan...

Samoderjaviyelik qúrylys qúlatylghannan keyin barlyq músylman júrtynyn, sonyng ishinde qyz-kelinshekterding de sayasy belsendiligi artqan kezde Mәskeude túratyn músylman әielder qauymy qyz-kelinshekterding býkilreseylik qúryltayyn ótkizudi úsynghan-dy.  Naqty úiymdastyru júmystaryn tis dәrigeri Qadisha Tanasheva (Hadicha Tanacheva) bastaghan Qazan qalasynyng әielder qauymy qolgha aldy. Jinalys ótkizip, úiymdyq sharalardy qarastyrdy. Jetekshileri Qadishany qaladaghy músylman komiyteti qúramyna saylady. Uaqytsha basqarushy buro qúryp, jer-jerden ókilder keluge tiyis sezdi dúrystap  ótkizuge qajet qarjy jinaugha kiristi. Osylay úiymdastyru júmystary jýrgizilgennen son, búrynghy imperiya aumaghynda túratyn músylman qyz-kelinshekter qúryltayy shaqyrylyp, Qazan qalasynda 1917 jylghy 24–27 sәuirde ótti. Delegattar Reseyding әr ónirinen – Dala jәne Týrkistan ólkelerinen, Kavkazdan, Polishadan keldi. Olardyng jalpy sany 150 edi. Sezge osy resmy saylanyp kelgen ókilderden basqa taghy ýsh jýzdey әiel qatysty. Solardyng bәri qúryltaydy ashqan basqarushy buro tórayymy Qadisha Tanashevanyn  kirispe sózin tebirene tyndady. Ol osy uaqytqa deyin kýlliresey әielder qauymyna tap osylay bas qosyp, bastaryndaghy múqtajdyqtary jayynda sóilesuding mýmkindigi bolmaghanyn esterine saldy. «Býginde eski ýkimet joq, revolusiya bizge bostandyq әkeldi. Osy mýmkindikti paydalanyp әrtýrli oryndarda jinalyp jýrgen bizder ózimizding bastarymyzdaghy problemalardy talqylay bastadyq...  Biz búl sezde jalpymúsylman sezining qarauyna jatatyn manyzdy mәselelerdi sóz etetin bolamyz. Olar – әielderding sharighat boyynsha qúqtary, otbasyndaghy jәne qoghamdyq ómirdegi oryny, sayasy qúqtary jәne olardyng bolashaq Qúryltayshy jinalysqa qatysuy»  – dep, әleumettik ómirdegi jәne sayasattaghy ózekti mәselelerge nazar audardy, barshasyn kemsitilgen әiel qúqtary men olardy azattyq  tuy astynda sheshu joldary jayyndaghy oilaryn ortagha salugha shaqyrdy.  Jaryssózde sóileushiler qyzu da qyzyq, mazmúndy sózder aitty. Birneshe kýnnen keyin Mәskeude ótpek, kezekti (1905 jyldan bergi reti boyynsha besinshi, jana sayasy ahualgha baylanysty birinshi) býkilreseylik músylman sezinde әielder  mәselesi layyqty týrde qaralaryna senim bildirdi. Tiyisti qaulylar alynghannan keyin qúryltay «Músylman qyz-kelinshekterining qoghamyn» qúryp, Tanashevany onyng tórayymy etip saylady. Qoghamnyng basshy qúramyna Gýlsim de, Shafiha da endi...

Monarhiya tarih sahnasynan taydyrylghannan keyin shaqyrylghan býkilreseylik músylman sezi 1917 jylghy 1 mamyrda Mәskeude ashylar qarsanda  Qazanda ótken osy býkilresey músylman qyz-kelinshekterining alghashqy da jalghyz qúryltayyna qazaqtardan Gýlsim Asfendiarovadan basqa kimderding qatysqanyn dóp basyp tizip aita almaymyz. Búl jәit jәne, jalpy, qazaq elindegi qyz-kelinshekter qozghalysy qanday bolghany әli kóp zertteudi qajet etedi. Biraq jana ómir ýshin, әielderding qúqtary men azattyghy ýshin belsendi týrde kýresushiler qatarynda qazaq qyzdarynyng da edәuir bolghanyna shәk keltirmeymiz. Búghan «Músylman qyz-kelinshekter qoghamynyn» belgili dәrejede yqpaly tiii ghajap emes. Qogham tórayymy Qadisha Tanasheva, mәselen, tatar elindegi sayasy qyzmetting bel ortasynda jýrdi. Aqpan revolusiyasy serpin bergen  1917 jylghy músylman sezderinin, sayasat ómirge әkelgen  týrli is-sharalardyng bәrine qatysty, sol jylghy tamyzda Qazan qalalyq dumasynyng deputaty bolyp saylandy. Onyng qoghamdyq júmysqa osynsha berile qatysuyna jәne búghan qazaq elindegi qyz-kelinshekter qauymynyng da beytarap qaramauyna Qadishanyng kýieui, qazaq últ-azattyq qozghalysy qayratkerlerining biri Uәlithan Tanashevtyng ong әseri jәne qoldauy bolghany, sóz joq, kýmәn tughyzbaydy.

Uәlithan Sharafiddiynúly Tanashev Kaspiy tenizi jaghalauynda balyqshy kәsipker otbasynda 1882 jyly tughan. 1908 jyly Astrahan gimnaziyasyn, 1912 jyly Qazan uniyversiytetining zang fakulitetin bitirgen. Sol jyldan Qazanda advokatura salasynda istey bastady. 1913 jyly Qadishamen bas qosty. Qadisha Chistopolide júrtqa belgili dәuletti ziyalylar (aghayyndy Badamshinder) otbasynda dýniyege kelgen (Memdumanyng alghashqy eki shaqyrylymynyng mýshesi Gharifting inisi Zarifting qyzy). Birinshi orys revolusiyasy jyldary eri, revolusioner Qúsayyn Yamashev úiymdastyryp, Oral qalasynda shygharyp túrghan alghashqy tatar sosial-demokratiyalyq «Oral» gazetining redaktory boldy (osy basylymda Baqytjan Qarataev II Memdumagha deputat bolyp saylanghan bette, 1907 jylghy aqpanda,  orys halqyna ýndeuin jariyalaghan). 1907 jyly jazghytúrym patsha biyligi gazetti solshyl qyzmeti ýshin japqannan keyin, Yamashevter Qazangha oraldy. Múnda Qúsayyn әueli mektepte sabaq berdi, odan Qazan uniyversiytetining zang fakulitetine týsip, tatar jastarynyng ýiirmesine jetekshilik etti. Uәlithannyng student shaghynan ekeui jaqyn dos boldy. Qúsayyn oqys qazagha úshyraghannan son, aragha jyl salyp, Uәlithan dosynyng jesirine ýilengen-tin... Erli-zayypty Tanashevtar Aqpan revolusiyasynan keyin qogham tynys-tirshiligine meylinshe belsene aralasty.  Uәlithan Tanashev 1915 jyly belgili qayratker Seyitkerey Alkinmen birge (Alkin kezinde I Memduma mýshesi bolghan, Birinshi dýniyejýzilik soghysqa baylanysty jauyngerler men olardyng otbastaryna kómek kórsetu ýshin qúrylghan Uaqytsha músylmandar komiytetining mýsheligine kandidat edi) soghys saldarynan ýi-jayynan airylyp, bosqyndyqqa úshyraghandargha, atap aitqanda polishalyq-litvalyq tatarlargha jәrdem beru komiytetin úiymdastyryp, eleuli júmystar tyndyrghan. Odan 1917 jylghy nauryzda Qazandaghy músylman úiymyn úiymdastyrushylardyng biri bolyp,  Músylman komiyteti tóraghasynyng orynbasary lauazymyna saylandy.  Sol shaqta jerlesterining revolusiyalyq ózgeristerge baylanysty joldaghan shaqyrtuymen qazaq eline bardy, alghashqy sezderge qatysty. Mәskeude ótpek Býkilreseylik músylmandar sezine Ishki ordadan (Bókey ordasynan) delegat boldy. 1–11 mamyrda bolghan qúryltaygha Qadisha ekeui birge qatysty. Uәlithan sezde qúrylghan músylmandar odaghy atqaru komiytetining qúramyna Jansha Dosmúhamedovpen birge saylandy. Petrogradta túraqty júmys istegen Músatkom (Ikomus) qyzmetine atsalysyp túrdy. 1917 jylghy Ekinshi jalpyqazaq sezinde qúrylghan Alashordanyng belsendi qayratkeri boldy. Býkilreseylik Ortalyq Atqaru Komiyteti (VSIYK) 1919 jyly  qazaq últ-azattyq qozghalysyna qatysushylargha amnistiya (keshirim) jariyalaghan son, sovet jaghyna shyqty. Qazrevkomnyng baspa seksiyasy mýshesi, zannamalyq úsynystar әzirleytin bólimshesining mengerushisi, 1920 jylghy nauryzdan әdilet bólimi alqasynyng mýshesi, shildeden әdilet komissariaty alqasynyng mýshesi, qyrkýiekten komissardyng orynbasary boldy. 1920 jylghy qazan aiynda ótken Qazaqstan Kenesterining Qúryltayshy sezine Bókey oblysynan delegat retinde qatysyp, Qazatkom mýsheligine saylandy, respublika әdilet halkomynyng orynbasary boldy, uaqytsha halkom mindetin atqardy. Jyl ayaghynda RSFSR Jer halkomaty janyndaghy Qazaq ASSR ókildiginin, Mәskeudegi Qazaq ókildigining alqa mýshesi, alqa tóraghasynyng orynbasary, RSFSR Últ isteri jónindegi halkomatta QASSR ókili boldy. Osy qyzmetterinde istep jýrgeninde ol Mәskeude zayyby Qadishamen birge túrdy. Osynda 1923 jyly Qadisha túnghysh ret tútqyndalady. Soghan baylanysty Uәlithan barlyq qyzmetinen bosaydy da, kelinshegimen 1924 jyly Qazangha oralady.  Tatar respublikasynyng joghary soty apparatyna qyzmetke kiredi. Jazalaushy organdar  1932 jyly Qadishany taghy da tútqyndap, tergeuge alady. Al  Ýlken terror bastalghan 1937 jyly OGPU elu bes jasar erli-zayypty Tanashevtardyng ekeuin de qamap, Komy respublikasyndaghy konslagerige segiz jylgha aidaydy. 1945 jyly bosatqanmen, 1949 jyly alpys jetige kelgen Tanashevtardy qayta tútqyndaydy, Krasnoyar ólkesine jer audarady. Qadisha densaulyghy nasharlap, 1952 jyly sol jaqta qaytys bolghan...

Gýlsim Asfendiarova sovet ókimeti ornaghannan keyin «Qyz-kelinshekterding akusherlik kursyn» úiymdastyrdy, ózi kurs tyndaushylaryna «Ayaghy auyr әielder fiziologiyasy» pәninen dәris oqydy. Keyinirek búl kurs Tashkent medisina tehnikumy qaramaghyna berildi (Gýlsim sonda ómirining sonyna deyin enbek etti). Oqytushylyq júmysyn Qalalyq balalar auruhanasyndaghy qyzmetimen úshtastyryp, qoghamdyq júmyspen de shúghyldandy. Áldeneshe mәrte qalalyq sovetting deputaty boldy. Baspasózde әleumettik sala mәseleleri jóninen jәne ana men bala qúqtaryn qorghau taqyrybynda maqalalar jazyp túrdy.  Auruhanada Tashkent uniyversiytetin qazaq qyzdary ishinen dәriger mamandyghymen bitirgen alghashqy týlek Aqqaghaz Dosjanova onyng kómekshisi bolyp istedi.  Aqqaghaz medisina salasyndaghy oquyn Mәskeude bastaghan, sol jaqta qoghamdyq júmysqa aralasyp, Qazanda ótken Qyz-kelinshekter qúryltayynda Gýlsimmen tanysqan, olar Mәskeudegi Músylman sezinde de birge bolghan. Qysqasy, shyghys әielderi kәsiby salada teng qúqyqty boluy ýshin ekeui Týrkistan Respublikasynda birlesip kýres jýrgizdi... Ýlken terror jyldary Gýlsimning inisi, Týrkistan jәne Qazaq Respublikalarynda, Býkilreseylik Ortalyq Atqaru Komiytetinde iri qyzmetter atqarghan memleket qayratkeri,  Qazaqstan ghylymy men joghary bilim beru salasyn úiymdastyrushy Sanjar Jafarúly Aspandiarov atylyp ketti, kelini Rәbiya Serәliqyzy Lapina-Asfendiarova QarLAG-taghy 26 nýkte delingen «ALJIYR» әielder lagerine aidaldy. Mine osy tústaghy Gýlsim taghdyry kýngirt – әlde repressiyagha úshyrady, әlde basqa jaghday boldy. Múnyng bәri, jogharyda aitqanymyzday, jalpy músylman qyz-kelinshekter qozghalysy men oghan qazaq qyzdarynyng qatysuy auqymynda әli de tiyanaqty zertteudi qajet etedi...

Suretterde:

Gýlsim Asfendiarova

Qadisha Tanasheva

Shafiha Gasprinskaya

Músylman qyz-kelinshekterding býkilreseylik 1-shi sezine qatysushylyr. Soldan ongha qaray: 3-qatarda 8-shi – Qadisha Tanasheva,    4-qatarda 3-shi – Aqqaghaz Dosjanova, 5-qatarda 2-shi Gýlsim Asfendiarova. Qazan, 29.04.1917 j.

Beybit Qoyshybaev

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