Dýisenbi, 25 Qantar 2021
Janalyqtar 5202 4 pikir 14 Qyrkýiek, 2020 saghat 13:32

Ámir Temirding shahmaty

Temir shahmaty – Ámir Temir dýrildegen zamanda Túran memleketinde jәne oghan qaraghan aimaqtar men Islam yqpalyndaghy elderde keng taraghan oiyn týri. Ol shatranjdyng kýrdeli núsqasy bolghandyqtan, zamanynda el auzynda «Shatranj-y kamiyl» (kemel shahmat) nemese «Shatranj әl-Kabiyr» («ýlken shahmat» nemese «úly shahmat») dep te atalghan.

Anyz-әfsanalargha, sonday-aq kóptegen derekkózderge sәikes osynau oiyn modifikasiyasynyng avtory jәne búqaralyq dengeyde nasihatshysy úly jahangerding ózi bolghan. Aytalyq, búl turaly dәriger-ghalym әl-Ámuliyding 1350 jyly jazylghan «Bilim qazynasy» atty kitabynda bir shoghyr mәlimet keltirilgen.

Shahmattyng búl týrining ereksheligi – әrqaysysy ózdiginen qozghala alatyn birneshe sarbaz (peshka) tas bar.

Ámirding uaqytty tiyimdi ótkizuding bir joly retinde shahmat oiynyn qúlay sýigeni jylnamalardan mәlim. Kemeline kelgen shaghynda әdepki 8h8 ornyna ol 11h11 torshamen tolghaghan desedi. Bala kezinen osy oiyngha qyzyqqany jәne esimi sheber oiynshylar qatarynda atalghany da jasyryn emes.

Tipten, sol dәuirding eng súmdyq dýrbeleni – Ankara shayqasynan keyin tútqyngha týsken Bayazitti aldyna matap әkelgende, ashuyn basu ýshin onymen dereu shahmat oinaugha kiriskeni turaly әngimeler aitylady. Sondyqtan da tang qalatyn eshtene joq.

Jýz on óristi taqta

Temir shahmatynyng taqtasy bir týsti jýz on óristen túrady: onda on jol jәne on bir baghan bar. Sonymen qatar, eki qosymsha óris bar – bireui ekinshi joldyng ong jaghynda, al bireui toghyzynshy joldyng sol jaghynda. Búl qosymsha órister «qamaldar» (sitadelider) dep atalady. Qarsylastyng patshasy oiynshynyng sitadelin alghan kezde, oiyn «ten» dep jariyalanady. Patshadan basqa eshqanday tas sitadelidi ala almaydy.

Oyyngha kelesi tastar qatysady:

♚ patsha – dәstýrli shahmattaghyday patsha retinde jýredi;

(◉) sardar (general) – qighash boyymen bir torgha jýredi;

♛ uәzir – bir torgha tiginen nemese kóldeneninen jýredi;

(∆) jiraf – qighash boyymen bir torgha, sodan keyin kóldeneninen nemese tiginen keminde ýsh torgha jýredi (oghan tastardan sekirip ótuge tyiym salynady);

(Ώ) týie – qighash boyymen bir torgha jәne janyna qaray eki torgha jýredi (oghan tastardan sekirip ótuge rúqsat etiledi);

(♟) piyket (jasaq) – dәstýrli shahmat týrindegi uәzir sekildi, biraq kem degende eki torgha ghana jýredi;

♞ at – dәstýrli shahmat týrindegi at siyaqty jýredi;

♜ ladiya (keme) – dәstýrli shahmat týrindegidey jýredi;

♝ pil – qighash boyymen eki óriske jýredi (oghan tastardan sekirip ótuge rúqsat etiledi);

(◼) әskery mashina – kóldeneng nemese tiginen eki torgha jýredi (oghan tastardan sekirip ótuge rúqsat etiledi);

♙ sarbaz – dәstýrli shahmat týrindegi sarbaz tәrizdi jýredi, biraq óris boyynda bastapqy eki qadamsyz.

Ár tastyng óz sarbazy bar: patshanyng sarbazy, uәzirding sarbazy jәne taghy basqa.

Oy trenajery

«Temir shahmaty qazirgi shahmattargha qaraghanda tek oiyn retinde qarastyrylmaghan. Negizinen ol tynys-tirshiligi soghyspen órilgen әmirshining әrtýrli әskery taktikalardy oilastyrugha paydalanghan qúral, yaky «oy trenajery» qyzmetin atqarghan» deydi tarihshylar.

Sondyqtan ondaghy tastar Temir әskeri qúramyna birge-bir sәikes keledi: sarbazdar – jayau әskerdi, attar – atty әskerdi, әskery mashinalar – qorshau qúral-jabdyqtaryn bildiredi. Taqtada uәzirding de bolu sebebi – uәzir  mansabyndaghy kisi temirlikter memleketinde tek memlekettik basqaru salasyn ghana emes, әskerdi de qamdaumen ainalysqandyghynan.

Shahmat logikalyq oilaudy damytushy ziyatkerlik jýie. Býginde ol oiynnyng býkil әlemdegi aldynghy qatarly oqu oryndary týzilimine, mektep baghdarlamalaryna engeni kezdeysoq emes. Temirding batys pen shyghys, soltýstik pen batys baghyttaryndaghy sәtti joryqtary әskery taktika men qolbasshy strategiyasyn jýzege asyruda shahmatty praktika retinde tútqandyghynyng paydasyn kórsetedi.

Óz kezeginde Temir shahmatynyng da ózindik ishki týrleri bolghanyn aita keteyik. Atap aitqanda, olardyng biri Temirding biografy, arab jazushysy hәm tarihshy Ibn Arabshahqa tiyesili. Ayyrmashylyqtargha keletin bolsaq, Arabshah núsqasynda arystandar, búqalar jәne kýzetshi tastary qosymsha engizilgen. Ámirdikimen salystyrghanda búl tastardyng qalay qozghalghany turaly aqparattar saqtalmaghan, sondyqtan ony qazirgi tanda týpnúsqa erejelerge sәikes oinau mýmkin emes.

TAGhY OQYNYZ:  Hadis fiyqh bilgirinen basqany adastyrady

Ejelgi shahmat týrlerining qaysysynyng bolmasyn býgingisinen әldeqayda óristi bolghany aqiqat. Sәikesinshe, oinau da әldeqayda qiyn bolghandyqtan, olar oiynshylardan joghary aqyl-oy dayyndyghyn talap etken. Al Temir ordasy syrtqy jәne ishki sayasatynda údayy soghysqa әzirlikti basty qúndylyq kórgendikten, ózindik shahmat oiyn týrin de el azamattarynyng barynsha mengeruine mýddeli bolghan.

Otyrardan tabylghan shahmat tasy әmirge tiyesili

2004 jyly tarihshy ghalym M. Qoja «Otyrardy saqtau jәne janghyrtu» atty YuNESKO/Japoniyanyng jobasy ayasynda Otyrar biyleushisi sarayynyng bir bóligin tazalau barysynda shahmat tasyn tapqan. Ol Qazaqstan aumaghynda Talghardan keyin ekinshi qalashyqta tabylyp otyrghan sýiek búiym.

Ghalymnyng kuәlik beruinshe, qazir ol jәdiger Almatydaghy Ortalyq muzeyde saqtauly túr. Tastyng ýstingi bóligining shoshaqtanyp ayaqtaluy onyng koroli, ne ferzi tasy ekendigin kórsetedi. Figuranyng erekshe әshekeylenuine jәne jasalghan materialyna qarap, ony qarapayym halyq emes, aqsýiekter oinaghan shahmat tasy deuge negiz beredi.

Ghalymnyng ózi búl turaly «Oyyn tasy XIV gh. ekinshi jartysy – XV gh. birinshi jartysynda Otyrarda biylik jýrgizgen Berdibek sarayynan tabylyp otyr. Osy saraydyng iyesi Berdibekting әuleti qypshaq bolghan. Otyrarda dýnie salghan Ámir Temirding shahmat oiynyn jaqsy kórip, eng myqty shahmatshylardy shaqyrtyp oinaghany belgili. Pil sýieginen jasalyp órnektelgen shah tasy saray iyelerining biriniki, ne Ámir Temirding óziniki de boluy ghajap emes» degen.

Jalpy, әmirding әrli-berli ótkende búl jerge jii qonyp otyrghanyn, sonday-aq 1405 jyly Qytaygha bara jatqan joryghynda Arystandy-Qarabas jelinen ókpesine suyq tiyip, osy Berdibek sarayynda qaytys bolghanyn eskersek, sózining kәdimgidey jany bar.

Shahruh pen Shahruhiya

Birde Aladdin at-Tabriziymen shahmat oiynynyng ýstinde úly әmir úldy bolghanyn estip, shat-shadyman bolady (Ibn-Arabshah). Sol joly Temir qarsylasyna «shah ruh» jasaghan, yaghny «shah jәne mat» qoyghan eken.

Quanyshyna quanysh qosylyp, dәl osy uaqytta Syrdariya, taghy bir bayandarda Ámudariya boyynda jana qalanyng salynyp bitkeni turaly da habar keledi. Osylaysha, qos jaghymdy janalyqqa oray dýniyege kelgen úlynyng atyn, oiyn partiyasy qúrmetine shahmattaghy – «Shah» – patsha jәne «ruh» – tura figuralarynyng ataularymen «Shahruh» dep, al qúrylysy ayaqtalghan kentti «Shahruhiya» dep atapty.

Ámirge qatysty osy bir aituly oqigha turasynda jazba derekterde bedeldi qaynarlargha siltemeler kóp saqtalghan. Qazaq ishinde ol aimaqtanu shenberinde «Úlylar eli Otyrar» jinaq kitabynda keninen tarqatylyp otyr («Shyn» baspahanasy).

Mәdeny qaharman

Temirding jeke basy – ol tarih órinde ózining jaulap alushylyghymen ghana tanymal bolghan joq. Ayperen túlgha ózge ondy qasiyetterin aitpaghanda, tamasha әskerbasy, memleket qayratkeri jәne termindik tilmen aitqanda culture hero boldy.

«Mәdeniyet qaharmany» retinde de artynda kóp mәdeniy-ruhany múra, kóptegen qalalar men sәulet eskertkishterin qaldyra bildi. Qazaq jazirasynyng jauhary – kýmbezderi kókpen astasqan Yasauy kesenesin saldyrghanynyng ózi nege túrady! Sondyqtan Temirding sol kezendegi býkil әlem oishyldarymen súhbatta bola otyryp shahmattyng jana týrin oilap tabuy әbden zandy qúbylys.

Múndayda qit etse, bәrin parsygha teludi әdetke ainaldyrghan orys әlemi jәne «kóshpendi» dese tóbe shashy tik túratyn eurosentrizm ústanymyn qabyldamau kerek. Ata tarih faktologiyasy kórsetip otrghanday, týrki dýniyesi de ónertapqyshtardan esh kende bolmaghan.

M. Qoja aitqanday-aq, ata-babalardyng shahmat oinaghany jәne búl oiynnyng qazaq jerine ortaghasyrda kelgenin arheologiyalyq zertteuler quattaydy. Oghan qazaq tilinde shahmattyng kóne atauy «shatyrash» sózining saqtaluy aighaq.

Temirding tegeurindi de qarama-qayshylyqqa toly ómir joly, Úly dala taghdyryndaghy qasiretti róline qaramastan, ol alash órkeniyetining de iri túlghasy. Onyng qúrghan imperiyasynda kýngey qazaghynyng da qany men teri, zor ýlesi bolghan. Endeshe, odan qalghan aitarlyqtay erekshelikteri bar shahmat oiyny da tól mәdeny qúndylyq. Ony qayta janghyrtu, oiyn dәstýrin tiriltu – paryz bolsa kerek. Osyny úmytpaghan lәzim be deymiz.

Abylayhan Qalnazarov,

Mәdeniyettanushy-lingvist

Abai.kz

4 pikir