Seysenbi, 26 Qantar 2021
Alashorda 6317 8 pikir 24 Shilde, 2020 saghat 16:12

Altyn kilt

Ábilqayyr han

Mәskeu, 19 aqpan 1731 jyl.

Tarihy miniatura

Qazaq Ordasynan Resey imperatrisasyna Ábilqayyr hannyng jazghan hatyn alyp kele jatqan elshiler әueli 1730 jylghy qyrkýiekte Ufa shaharyndaghy әkim Buturliyn-voevodagha mәn-jaylaryn bayandap, Ábilqayyrdyng oghan arnap jibergen jazbasyn tapsyrdy. Voevoda tilmәshine oqytyp, hatpen múqiyat tanysty. Elshilermen jaqsylap súqbattasty. Sosyn onyng tapsyrmasy boyynsha Ufa kensesi imperiyanyng sheteldik ister alqasyna elshilikting patshayymgha bara jatqan maqsatyn keninen taratyp әngimelegen qyzmettik bayanhat әzirledi. Áskery qyzmetten brigadir sheninde dogharysqa shyghyp, ótken jyly ghana voevodalyqqa taghayyndalghan Petr Ivanovich Buturlinge qazaq hanynyng arnayy joldaghan hatyn orysshagha audaryp,  oghan qosa tirkedi. Tiyisti tәrtippen rәsimdelgen poshtamen shabarmandar attanghannan keyin, Ufa әkimi qosyp bergen  jolbasshylarmen birge qazaq elshiligi de orys astanasyna qaray saparyn jalghastyrdy...   

 Olar betke ústap kele jatqan patshayym osy 1730 jyldyng basynda ghana orys patshalyghynyng taghy alghash ornyqqan Mәskeuge Baltyq tenizi jaghyndaghy Kurlyandiya delinetin shaghyn elding astanasy Mitavadan kelgen bolatyn. Qonyraulatqan sәndi shanalar keruenimen Kremlige kirgen. Saltanatty týrde. Óitkeni ol,  Anna Ioannovna, Imperiya taghyna otyrghyzu ýshin arnayy shaqyrylghan-dy. Búl 1730 jylghy 15 aqpan edi. Bes kýnnen keyin oghan – orys patshayymyna – memleketting joghary mәrtebeli shonjarlary men biyik әskery shendileri adal bolatyndyqtaryn bildirip, ant bergen. Taghy bes kýnnen keyin solardyng bir ýlken toby patshayym Anna Ioannovnanyng qúzyryna qaytadan qúldyq úra kirip, Jogharghy Qúpiya Kenes ony taqqa shaqyru ýshin jasaghan kondisiyagha – patshayymnyng biyik mәrtebeli qúqtaryn shekteytin sharttar týzilgen qújatqa – kelispeytindikterin aitqan. Patshayymnyng tolyq qúqyqty samoderjavie iyesi boluyn qalaytyndyqtaryn jariya etken. Búl Annagha jaghymdy pikir edi, ol osylay bedeldi sanovnikterdin, generaliytettin, gvardiyalyq qosyndar ofiyserlerinin, dvoryandardyng kópshiligi ózining jaghynda túrghanyn bilgende, kózderinshe Jogharghy Qúpiya Kenesting «aldamshy»  qújatyn aldy da, jyrtyp tastady. Ózining Rossiyagha birden-bir qoja,  samoderjisa jәne imperatrisa ekenin jariya etti. Ýsh kýnnen keyin týrli biyik dәrejeliler men biylik tútqalaryndaghylardyng bәrinen Úly Rossiyanyng samoderjaviyelik imperatrisasy retinde qaytadan jana ant qabyldady. Artynsha arnayy pәrmenimen Jogharghy Qúpiya Kenesti taratyp, I Petrding kezindegi Biyleushi senatty búrynghy mәrtebesinde qalpyna  keltirdi. Sosyn, Ant alu rәsiminen eki ay ótkende, 1930 jylghy 28 sәuirde, Kremliding taq ornatuly aqshanqan saltanatty zalynda patshayym Anna Ioannovnagha Úly Rossiya imperiyasynyng tәjin resmy týrde kiygizu jorasy jasaldy.   

Orystyng alyp imperiyasy taghyna Litva Úly knyazdigining vassaly bop tabylatyn kishkentay gersogtik astanasy Mitavadan shaqyrylyp otyrghyzylghanyna kónili marqayghan otyz bes jasar tyghyrshyqtay tolyq, shat-shadyman jesir kelinshek sodan beri ózining ainalasyna kóniline jaghatyn adamdardy jinap, patshayymdyq quanyshyna say shattyqta ómir sýrip kele jatqan. Eng aldymen Kurlyandiyadan ózining naqsýieri, shýbәsiz favoriyti Ernst Iogann Birondy alghyzdy. Ol jәne kansler Andrey Osterman (Genrih Iogann Fridriyh) imperatrisa Anna Ioannovnanyng ong qoly boldy. Resey patshalyghynyng tizgini aqyryn susyp, is jýzinde osy ekeuining qolyna auysty. Kóbine solardyng kenesimen orys imperiyasyndaghy kýlli biylikting sheshushi tútqalaryna shetjúrttyq nemister taghayyndalyp jatty. Orys armiyasynyng basyna da nemisten felidmarshal Hristofor Minih (Burhard Kristof fon Munniyh) qoyyldy. Kezinde Petr patsha nemere qaryndasy Annany kishkentay Kurlyandiyanyng gersogine  ózining batystaghy yqpalyn arttyru ýshin úzatqan edi, endi sol gersogting jesiri Rossiyagha oralyp, Úly Petrding taghyna otyryp alghannan son, alyp Rossiyanyng óz alpauyttary biylik tútqalarynan yghystyrylyp, oryndaryn sheteldikter, jer-suy da, halqy da, kýsh-quaty da qúp-qúrtymday bóten elden kelgen shet júrttyqtar basyp jatty. 

Ázirge kansler Golovkin ghana pәlen jyldan bergi lauazymyn saqtap túrghan-dy. Ol, graf Gavriil Ivanovich Golovkiyn, Petr patshanyng reformalaryna sәikes qúrylghan Sheteldik ister alqasynyng preziydenti bolatyn. (Anna patshayym ony syrtqy ister alqasynyng preziydenttiginen qozghaghan joq, ol dýniyeden kóshken 1734 jyldan keyin ghana ornyna Ostermandy qoydy). Gavrila Golovkin Birinshi Petrding anasynyng tuysqany bolghandyqtan, jastayynan patshanyng janynda bolghan-dy. Petr patshanyng joryqqa shyqqan uaqyttarynda ózimen birge alyp jýretin kóshpeli kensesin sol basqardy. Sodan I Petr ony 1706 jyly patshalyqtyng janadan qúrylghan elshilik isterimen shúghyldanatyn mekemesin basqarugha taghayyndaghan. Ol kezde memleketting shetelderge baylanysty sharualarymen – syrtqy istermen ainalysatyn kensesi Posoliskiy prikaz, yaghny Elshilik әkimdigi dep atalatyn. On jyl óte aty Elshilik alqasy dep ózgertildi. Sosyn Sheteldik ister alqasyna ainaldyryldy. Búl Rossiyanyng shet memlekettermen qarym-qatynasyn qarastyryp, jónimen mengerudi qamtamasyz etu ýshin qúrylghan ortalyq basqarmanyng organy edi.  Mine, sony úzaq jyldar boyy túraqty týrde imperiyadaghy birinshi kansler Golovkin basqaryp keledi. Mindetin abyroymen atqaryp jýr. Árdayym patshanyng núsqaularyna sәikes әreket etude. Eshqashan ózining әldeqanday  bastamasy baryn kórsetpesten, patshanyng әr sózin qatang saqtap, tiyanaqty týrde oryndap otyrugha óte múqiyat kónil bólip túrdy.  Úly Petr ómirden ótkennen keyin de, jogharghy biylikke riyasyz berilgendigining arqasynda, ýzengilesterining kópshiliginen erekshelenip, ózining qyzmetining búrynghy  mәn-manyzyn saqtap qaldy. Úly Petrding ekinshi әieli bolghan Ekaterina patshayym túsynda, 1726 jyly ómirge kelgen memleketting biylikting jana organy Jogharghy Qúpiya Kenesting mýshesi boldy. Alyp imperiyany әielder basqara bastaghan, negizinde sol 18-shi ghasyrdyng sonyna deyin sozylghan qatyn-patshalar dәuirining basy bolghan I Ekaterina taqta otyrghan kezde, saray ishindegi qulyq-súmdyqqa toly amaldargha qúrylghan biylik oiyndarynan sheberlikpen aman ótip jýrdi. Ony patshayym da joghary baghalady. Eshtenege de kýdik tughyzarlyqtay qyzyghushylyq tanytpaytyn,  adal, eng senimdi adamy dep bildi. Sondyqtan da oghan I Petrding әli besikten beli shyqpaghan derlik nemeresinin, on bir jasar bolashaq patshanyng qamqorshylarynyng biri etip taghayyndaghan ósiyetnamasyn – memlekettik aktini senip tapsyrghan-dy. 1727 jyly Birinshi Ekaterinanyng densaulyghy nasharlap, qysqa patshayymdyq ghúmyry ayaqtaldy. Sol jyly bala taqqa otyrghyzyldy, imperator Ekinshi Petr atandy. Eki jyl óte, 1930 jylghy 19 qantarda, ózining ýilenu toyynyng qarsanynda,  on tórt jasar bala-patsha dýnie saldy. Sonda kansler Golovkin búl qújatty  órtep jiberdi. Sebebi onda jas imperatorda bala bolmaghan jaghdayda, ol ólgennen keyin taq Úly Petrding keyingi úrpaqtarynyng birine berilui kerektigi aitylghan-dy. Biraq odan tikeley erkek túqymdy úrpaq qalmaghan edi, sondyqtan ol imperiya taghyna I Petrding qamqorlyghyn kórgen nemere qaryndasy, Romanovtar túqymy Anna Ioannovnany әkeludi qalady. Sol sebepti onyng patshayym boluynyng sharttaryn aityp, shekterin belgilegen Jogharghy Qúpiya Kenesting «Kondisiya» atty qújatyna qol qoydy... 

Ákesi Ioann patshadan ýsh jasynda qalghan on jeti jasar Annany nemere aghasy Petr patsha sayasy maqsatpen Kurlyandiya gersogine túrmysqa bergen-di. Knyazi Menshikovting sarayynda nekesi qiylghan. Ertenine sonda patsha  mәrtebesine say dýrildetip toy ótkizilgen. Sodan gersog Fridrih Viligelim Peterburgte eki ay boyy órimdey kelinshegimen ertegidegidey shat kýnder ótkizgen. Aqyry jas júbaylar 1711 jylghy 8 qantarda Kurlyandiyagha qaray jolgha shyqqan. Alayda qaladan shygha beriste-aq, jol ýstinde, Dudergof manynda gersog dýniyeden ozady. Taghdyrynyng múnday qayghyly aqyry onyng ishkilik ishu ónerin mengerui jaghynan orys imperatorynyng ózimen bәsekelesuden tartynbaghanynan, sóitip shamasyn bilmey qalghanynan boldy desetin júrt. Ne kerek, bolar is bolghan da, jas jesir anasy Praskoviya patshayymnyng qolyna qaytyp oralghan.  Biraq patsha aghasy Petr kelesi 1712 jylghy jazda Annany gersog Fridrih Viligelimning jesiri retinde tiyisti ornyn aluy ýshin Kurlyandiya astanasy Mitavagha attandyrdy. Sonda Anna 1930 jylghy qantarda Jogharghy Qúpiya Kenes tarapynan Rossiya taghyna otyrugha shaqyrylghangha deyin qalghan-dy. Shetel isteri alqasynyng preziydenti kansler Golovkin Úly Petrding qaryndasyn taqqa shaqyrugha, sosyn, patshayym Mәskeuge kelgennen keyin, onyng samoderjaviyege tolyqqandy qojayyn-biyleushi bolyp, jahan moyyndaytyn imperatrisa atanuyna septesti. Imperatrisa Anna Ioannovna onyng búl jәrdemin úmytpaghan edi...  

Shet memlekettermen diplomatiyalyq qarym-qatynastargha jauap beretin Syrtqy ister alqasynyng preziydenti retinde Gavriil Golovkin Úly Petr imperatordyng búl rettegi  kýlli is-әreketteri men josparlaryna qashannan qanyq bolatyn. Jәne olardy jýzege asyrudy kózdeytin sharalardy әrqashan patsha kónilinen shygharday dәrejede oryndaugha kýsh salatyn. Shyghys baghytyna baylanysty Úly Petrding әldeneshe jobasy boldy. Solardyng biri de biregeyi – Aziyagha tóte jolmen terendeu edi. Biraq tura jolda – jabyq qaqpa sekildenip úlan-ghayyr dala jatqan. Sony ashatyn kiltti qolgha týsiru kerek-túghyn. Dúrysynda, sol Úly dala tósindegi qaqpa kýzetshisi ispetti kóshpendi halyqty baghyndyru qajet edi. Biraq búl onay sharua emes-tin. Mine, olar úzaq jyldar boyy, sonau  Ermak zamanynan beri, údayy kazaktarmen soghysyp kele jatyr, biraq beti qaytar emes. Olargha qarsy, kansler Golovkinning ózi kuә, astyrtyn týrde qalmaqtar men bashqúrttar da aidap salynuda. Biraq ong nәtiyje shamaly, aitugha túrmaydy. Qalmaqtardyng ontýstik-shyghystaghy tuystaryna, jonghar handyghynyng astanasyna Ertis boyymen jýzip barghan ekspedisiya arqyly olardy Úly Rossiyanyng qamqorlyghyna alu jayynda úsynys jasaldy, alayda qabyl alynbady. Shetel isteri alqasynyng tilmәshi Mәmed Tevkelev qalmaq handyghy shonjarlarynyng arasyna jiberilgen-di. Sonda ol úzaq uaqyt qalmaqtyng tilin ýirendi, qalmaq shendilerimen óz adamdarynday súqbattasty, aqyry olardyng qúpiya syryn bildi. Rossiya protektoraty bop túrghan qalmaq handyghynyng týstiktegi jonghar handyghymen astyrtyn sóz baylasyp, eki aralaryndaghy jalpaq kenistikte jatqan qazaq elin basyp-baghyndyryp alu, sóitip Úly dalada bayaghy Shynghys han zamanyndaghyday jana imperiya qúru maqsattary baryna imperiya әkimshiligining kózi jetti. Sóz joq, Resey ondaygha jol bermek emes. Olar soghyssyn, jaulassyn, biraq birikpesin. Sonday oimen patsha jongharlargha arnayy elshilik jiberdi. Óz betterinshe zenbirek qúndy qolgha alghan jongharlardyng oq-dәri qarularymen jaqsylap jaraqtanuyna, sóitip qazaqtargha qarsy ýlken de joyqyn shabuyl jasauyna astyrtyn kómek kórsetildi. Qazaqtar «aqtaban shúbyryndygha» úshyratyldy, dese de boy bermedi. Qyrylyp bara jatyp, feniks-qússha tirilip ketti, qayta ense kóterdi. Petr patsha sonda olargha qarsy diplomatiyalyq aila-amaldardy batylyraq iske qosudy qosh kórdi. Búl kóshpendi handyq  qaytkende quatty Rossiyanyng qamqorlyghyna sýienudi, proteksiyasyna alynudy maqúl kóruge tiyis, qansha qarjy qajet bolsa, sonsha júmsap, olargha sony moyyndatu qajet dedi. Sonday jolmen ghana Aziya qaqpasynyng kiltin qolgha týsiruge  bolady dedi. Petr patshanyng ózi jәne onyng Sibirdegi, Qazandaghy әkimderi әr kezde Tәuke hanmen, ol qaytys bolghannan keyin Qayyp hanmen, ol qaza tapqannan keyin Ábilqayyr hanmen aghymdaghy sayasy jaghdaylargha baylanysty qarym-qatynas jasaghan, hat jazysqan, elshiler almasysqan. Endi sonday sharualardy algha qoyylghan jana maqsat orayynda epti amaldarmen jýrgizu kerek-túghyn. Biraq búl isting oryndaluyn kóru imperatordyng óz mandayyna jazylmady. I Petr  ansaghan qaqpany ashatyn altyn kilt ol qaytys bolghannan beri altynshy jylgha ayaq basqanda ghana, múragerlerining kóz aldynda kezdeysoq men múndalady... 

Ótken kýzge salym Shetel isteri alqasynyng preziydenti kansler Golovkin Ufa voevodasy Petr Buturlinning bayan-hatyn oqyp otyryp, patshayymgha bettegen qazaq elshiligi men onyng maqsaty jayyndaghy qyzyq aqparatqa qanyqty. Úly Petrding armanyn oryndaudyng qisyny kelgenin tez-aq payymdady. Jәne múny jýzege asyrudy kimge tapsyrugha bolatynyn da birden oilap qoydy. Ol  – Alqa audarmashysy Mәmed Tevkelev edi. Tevkelev kópten qaramaghynda shyghys tilderi tilmәshi bop isteytin. Dúrysynda, patshanyng tikeley baqylauyndaghy búl qúrylymda әueli onyng әkesi, aghalary da istegen, solardyng ishinde  osy kishi Tevkelev erekshelendi. Ony Petr patsha da únatty. Shyghys tilderin jaqsy biletindiginen ózining tikeley tilmәshi etip aldy. Audarmashy retinde Tevkelev patshanyn  manyzdy joryqtaryna birge baryp jýrdi. Orys-týrik soghysy barysynda, 1711 jyly Petr patsha Osman imperiyasy qolastyndaghy Moldova knyazdigine joryqqa shyghyp, Prut  ózeni jaghasynda armiyasymen qorshaugha týsip qalghan. Sonda, jenilip bara jatqanynda, týrikting bas uәzirimen beybit kelissóz jýrgizuine Tevkelev shiraq ta tapqyr, sheshen de dilmәr tilmәsh retine septesti, sóitip patshanyng tútqyndaludan aman qaluyna, týriktermen qolaysyzdau bolsa da, ózine tiyimdi shart jasasuyna qatysty. 1722–1723 jyldarghy Kaspiy joryghynda da Tevkelev Petr patshanyng qasynda boldy. Zamanynda qúdiretti bolghan parsy memleketi ydyray bastaghandaghy onyng joryghyna baylanysty parsylarmen, týriktermen jýrgizilip-jasalghan kelissózderine tilmәshtik etti. Sondaghy orysqa qaratylghan iyelikter Petrding qazasynan keyin kóp úzamay, Anna Ioannovnanyng pikirinshe bolashaqsyz aimaq dep sanalghandyqtan, qoldan shyghyp ketti. Keleshegi zor ónir jayynda Úly Petr armiyasymen tenizge shyghar aldynda Astrahanda bir jospar aitqan, sony tilmәshi kókiregine týiip qalghan-dy. Onysy imperiyalyq syrtqy ister alqasynyng preziydenti bop jýrgen Úly Petrding naghashysynyng ishki tilegimen keremet ýilesip túrghan. Al onyng ishki tilegi Shyghystaghy baghaly baylyqtargha túnghan aimaqtardyng qaqpasy qazaq jeri bolmaghyn, ony ashudyng kilti sondaghy halyqty óz yqpalyna týsirude jatqanyn baghamdaghan patsha-jiyen ózine shertken syrdan tuyndaghan-tyn.  Memleketting syrtqy ister jónindegi qúrylymynyng preziydentine qolgha alynugha tiyis jospar retinde I Petrding aitqanyn endi, orayy kelip túrghanda, osy jigerli de mansapqúmar chinovnik jerine jetkize oryndaryna kýmәn joq. Golovkin solay oilady. Shynynda da, kansler qazaq elshilerimen әngimeleskende, olardyng tilin jaqsy biletin tilmәsh Tevkelev tamasha dәneker boldy. Kansler Golovkin boyshan, aryq kisi, qay jaghynan qarasang da ziyaly, sypayy, esh kirpiyazdyghy joq qarapayym, qadirmendi qariya, sonymen birge sheteldikter degende әr sózine mәn berip sóileytin saq adam edi. Jәne otanshyl, memleket mýddesin bәrinen joghary qoyatyn kisi-tin. Úly Petr óz aldyna,  Ekaterina patshayymgha da, II Petr patshagha da, Anna patshayymgha da  әrdayym adal qyzmet etip kele jatqan qayratker. Samoderjaviyege paydaly boluy yqtimal janalyqty tez týsinip, sózsiz qoldaydy. Kiyim kiyisi mýldem qarapayym kansler qabyldauyna óz elderining salt-dәstýrlerine, ózderining ondaghy mәrtebelerine say әsem de kórneki, sypayy da jinaqy kiyinip kelgen kelbetti, aqyldy, ústamdy qazaq elshilerin kónetozdau súr kostummen qarsy alghan-dy. Olardyng ekzotikalyq túrpattaryna eleusiz kóz tastay otyryp, sabyrly keyippen elshilikting týpki maqsatyn dәl andaugha tyrysqan. Andady da. Anday otyryp, Ábilqayyr han armandaghan protektorattyqtyng bolashaghy ol kózdegendey emes, protektordyng mýmkindik beretin dәrejesindey ghana boluy tiyistigin payymdady. Qazir qaytkende Úly Petr qalaghan bir japyraq qaghazdy qolgha týsiru manyzdy, al ony imperiya mýddesine búru – onaydyng onayy, ol patshayymnyng erik-jigerine tәueldi bolmaq... Kózi jetip otyr, tilmәsh Tevkelev olardy júmsap otyrghan Ábilqayyr hannyng patshayymgha arnap jazghan hatyn orysshagha patshayymnyng mereyin ósire týsetindey sóz saptaulardy paydalanyp, qazaqtardyng kýni týskendikten jalyna kelgen týrlerin tanytatynday etip audarghan. Tәrjime-mәtindi kansler qatty únatty. Keyin olardy – ózderinshe syrbaz da ór keyip tanytatyn osynau dalalyq elshilerdi – patshayym aldyna aparghanda da,  qabyldau kezinde de dilmәr tilmәsh  jorgha tilimen jaqsy kenes ótkizuge sebepker boldy. Sodan oghan elshilerdi orystyng eki astanasyndaghy patshalyqtyng kýsh-quaty men úlylyghyn tanytatyn oryndargha aparyp, kónilderin myqtap aulau tapsyryldy. Sol tústa Golovkin patshayymmen tiyisti pikir alysyp, qajet oy qorytty da, qazaq hanyna onyng elshilerimen birge barugha tiyis ýlken orys elshiligin jasaqtaudy bastady. Jәne ony basqarugha Tevkelev tandap alyndy... 

Qazaq dalasyna elshilik jeleuimen attandyrylatyn arnayy ekspedisiya jasaqtalyp bitkennen keyin, syrtqy ister preziydenti Golovkin Kremlige keldi. Favoriytimen birge ang aulaugha baryp, eki betin ayaz sýiip kónildi oralghan patshayymgha eki manyzdy qújat jobasyn alyp kirdi. Biri elshilik basshysyna, yaghny tilmәsh Tevkelevke arnalghan núsqaulyq edi. Ony Shetel isteri alqasynda múqiyat pysyqtap, ózi  bekitken. Patshayymgha qoldauyn alu ýshin tanystyrudy qosh kórgen-tin. Sony kórsetip, mazmúndap berdi. Qújat sol kýni «Kirgiyz-Qaysaq ordasyna, ony Rossiya bodandyghyna әkelu ýshin» attandyrylyp otyrghan «shyghys tilderining tәrjimeshisi Megmet Tevkelevke Sheteldik ister Memlekettik Alqasynan Núsqau» degen atpen rәsimdelgen-di. Preziydent-kanslerding óz qolynan óte tәtpishtele qaralyp dýniyege kelgen búl qújat boyynsha, Úly dalagha arnayy jasaqtalyp júmsalmaq elshilik mәrtebesindegi keruenning basshysy retinde Mәmed Tevkelev ózine mindet etip jýktelgen on eki babtan túratyn tapsyrmany múqiyat oryndaugha tiyis edi. Onyng basty maqsaty Qazaq Ordasyn Reseyding protektoraty etuge, qazaqtardy Resey bodany bashqúrttarmen tatu boluyna, sol maqsatta Rossiyanyng qamqorlyghyna alynuy kerektigine iyliktiru ýshin diplomat Tevkelevke baghyt-baghdar beru bolatyn. Núsqaudyng 1-shi tarmaghynda onyng Qazaq Ordasyna, onda olardyng basty jәne birinshi hany Ábilqayyrgha, onyng osynda kelgen jәne Tevkelevpen birge keri qaytarylghan Qútlúmbet by men Seyitqúl batyr bastaghan elshilerge qosylyp birge baruyn mindettegen sózder jazylghan-dy.  2-shi tarmaq boyynsha  Tevkelevke «Ebulhair Handa bolyp», oghan myna sózderdi aitu mindetteledi: «sen, Ábilqayyr han, elshilerin  Qútlymbet Qoshtaevty jәne Seytqúl Qoydaghúlovty ózinning jazghan paraghynmen («s listom svoiym»)  jәne auyzsha joldaghan  ótinishinmen ...Býkilresey Samoderjisasy jәne Imperatrisasy Anna Ioannovnagha jiberip, sen, Han, barlyq iyeliginmen qosa rossiyalyq bodandyqqa qabyldansaq, sóitip rossiyalyq bodandarmen beybitshilik jaghdayda bolsaq dedin. Sodan ...Gosudarynya Imperatrisa senderdi – qazaqtyng agha hany Ábilqayyrdy jәne barlyq qazaq әskerin («Kirgis-Kaysaskogo Hana Ebulhaira, starshinu y vse  Kirgis-Kaysaskoe voysko») senderding súranularyng boyynsha Rossiya bodandyghyna qabyldaudy qosh kórdik jәne әmir ettik. Osy jóninde saghan – Ábilqayyr hangha – jәne barlyq Qazaq әskerine («voysku Kaysaskomu») Onyng Imperatorlyq Úlylyghynyng haty («gramota») sening jibergen elshilerinmen  joldandy, tatar tilindegi kóshirmesi tirkeldi». Tatar tilinde qalay jazylghany jәne 1931 jylghy 10 qazanda Ábilqayyr ordasyndaghy  bas adamdar qúryltayynda qaytip jariya bolghany beymәlim, degenmen orysshasyndaghy «bodandyqqa qabyldau» degen tirkes kóshpendilerding týsiniginde «qorghanymyzgha, qamqorlyghymyzgha alu» úghymyn beretini anyq bolatyn.

Osylardy «Gramotasynda» aita kele, patshayym «sony rastau ýshin jәne Ózining Imperatorlyq meyirining belgisi retinde» Tevkelevting olargha ne deui kerektigin naqtylap kórsetken. Elshini qazaqtargha Anna Ioannovna «Ózining Imperatorlyq Úlylyghynyng hatymen («gramotasymen») júmsaghanyn aitugha tiyis». Núsqaulyq boyynsha odan әri elshi bylay deu kerek: «Jәne maghan senderdi ýmittendir dep núsqau berdi, Onyng Úlylyghy senderdi – Ábilqayyr han men kýlli Qazaq әskerin («Kirgis-Kaysaskoe voysko») Ózining riyasyz meyirine bóleytin bolady. Jәne ózara senimmen, sender de  – Han jәne barlyq әsker – ózdering uәde bergendey, ózderindi Onyng Imperatorlyq Úlylyghyna adal bodandargha layyq ústaydy dep ýmittenedi». Osy sózderdi aityp bolghannan song Tevkelev núsqau boyynsha patshayym berip jibergen (qylysh, ton, bórik, mata, t.b.) syilyqtardy hangha tapsyrady. 3-shi babta Ábilqayyr men ózge de handardyng bodandyqqa kiruge Qúran ústap ant etuin jәne qoldaryn qoydyryp aluyn Tevkelevting úiymdastyruy kerektigi aitylghan. 4-shi babta elshilerding patshayymgha auyzsha aityp kelgenderi eske alynyp, hannyng ózinen nemese әigili adamdardan, bashqúrttar sekildi, Ufagha amanatqa balalaryn jibere me, yasak tólep túra ma, solardy anyqtau tapsyryldy. Eger kelispese, meyli, qol qoyghyzyp, adaldyqta túramyz degen  uәdege qanaghattanu jón ekeni 5-shi babta aityldy. 6–8-shi babtarda  hannyng patshayymgha jauap-hatynyng qanday mazmúnda boluy kerektigi, hannan kelgen elshilerdi qabyldauda jasalatyn jaghdaylar, qazaq elindegi reseylik tútqyndardy qaytarugha qol jetkizu mәseleleri, al 9-shy babta Tevkelevting túraqty týrde kýndelik jýrgizui jәne onda ne jazylugha tiyistigi tәtpishtep kórsetilgen. 10-shy babta onyng anyqtaugha tyrysqan mәseleleri men qazaqtar jayyndaghy jazbalary meylinshe qúpiya  boluy,  jazghandaryn eshkimge kórsetpeu qajet ekendigi, ony qazaqtar týgil, qasyndaghy elshilik adamdary da bilmeui tiyistigi shegelep kórsetildi. 11-shi babta Ábilqayyr han amanatqa bala bergen jaghdayda jәne alghan tútqyndaryn qaytarghanday bolsa, olardy Ufa voevodasyna qanday shartpen tapsyruy kerektigi jazylghan. 12-shi babta barlyq tapsyrmany oryndap, Mәskeuge oralghannan keyin, Tevkelevting Sheteldik ister alqasyna  tolyq esep beretini eskertilgen.

Anna Ioannovna núsqaulyqty da, Golovkinning týsindirmelerin de maqúldady. Eng bastysy, Úly Petrding ózi aitqanday, – qazaqtardyng Rossiyanyng proteksiyasyn qabyl alatyndyqtary jayyndaghy bir japyraq qaghazdy qolgha týsiru... Qalmaqtar da ishki isterimizdi ózimiz sheshetin protektorat boldyq dep oilaghan, biraq imperiya mýddesi olardyng derbestenuin kótermeytinin tanytyp keledi emes pe... Qazaq ta sonday mәrtebede bolady, mine, Anna Ioannovna óz atynan jiberiletin hattyng mazmúnyna kóz salsyn... Golovkin paishayymgha «Kirgiyz-kaysak Ordasynyng Starshinasy Ebulhair Hangha jәne barsha әskerge syilanghan Gramota» dep atalghan qújatty, býgingi tilge audarghanda «Qazaq Ordasynyng agha hany Ábilqayyr hangha jәne onyng әskerine» jogharydan berilgen syy esepti joldanatyn hat  jobasyn tanystyrugha kóshti. 1731 jylghy 19 aqpanda rәsimdelgen búl qújatta kýlli madaq mәrtebeleri («Qúdaydyng meyirimine bólengen», «Asqan jarqyn», «Qúdireti  airyqsha ýstem», «Býkilreseylik Imperatrisa jәne Samoderjisa», t.t.) «Biz» degen jalqy da ór ataugha tirkelip tizilgen «Úly Gosudarynya Anna Ioannovna» Ábilqayyr hangha jәne «barlyq Qaysaq Áskerine» ózining «Bizding Imperatorlyq Úlylyghymyzdyng meyirbandyghy» dep ataghan Haty («Gramotasy») jazylghan. Hatta onyng Ábilqayyr hannyng ózine «jazghan paraghynan», hannyng elshileri Qútlymbet Qúshtaev (Kutlumbet Kushtaev) jәne Seytqúl Qúdayqúlov (Seytkul Kuydantulov) arqyly estigenderinen: «Biz, Úly Gosudarynya, Bizding Imperatorlyq Úlylyghymyz... sening barlyq iyeliginmen Bizding bodandyghymyzda jәne Rossiya bodandary Bashqúrttarmen beybitshilikte bolghyng keletin tilegindi bildik» deydi. Odan әri: «Ebulhair Han, bizding qolastymyzda mynanday sharttarmen bolghyng keletinin sening elshilerin  osynda auyzsha jetkizdi» dep, olardy mynanday tórt tarmaqpen jýieleydi: «1) sender patshayymgha adal bolugha jәne bashqúrttar tәrizdi yasak (naturalidy salyq) tólep túrugha   uәde etesinder; 2) Rossiya bodandary tarapynan eshqanday kiykiljin, shapqynshylyq boldyrmauyn súraysyndar; 3) eger barsha Qaysaqtargha әldebir dúshpan shabuyl jasay qalsa, onda sender Rossiya bodandarymen qatar sanalyp, odan «Bizding imperatorlyq Úlylyghymyzdyng qorghauynda» kýzetilulering ýshin, «senderdi Rossiya bodandarymen bir» sanauymyzdy qalaysyndar; 4) senderden bashqúrttar jәne basqa Rossiya bodandary alghan yasyrlardy (tútqyndardy) qaytarsaq, sender ózderin  alghan rossiyalyqtardy qaytaryp beruge әri bashqúrttarmen jәne qalmaqtarmen tatu túrugha  uәde qylasyndar». 

Odan әri patshalyqtyng Ábilqayyr hannyng haty  men onyng elshilerining auyzsha jetkizgen sharttaryn qabylday kele, Qazaq Ordasyna protektor bolugha kelisetindigi patshayym atynan bylay tújyrymdaldy: «Sonda Biz, Úly Gosudarynya, Bizding Imperatorlyq Úlylyghymyz, seni, Kirgiyz-Qaysaqtyng agha hany Ebulhairdy jәne býtkil Kirgiyz-Qaysaq әskerin» qamqorlyghymyzgha qabyldap, «senderding ótinishterine sәikes, senderdi jogharyda aitylghan, ózdering shart etip qoyghan babtardaghy talaptarynmen bodandyqqa alugha әmir ettik». Qabyldanghan sharttar óz týsinikterimen bylay tújyrymdaldy: «Sondyqtan da sender – Han jәne barsha Kirgiyz-Qaysaq әskeri – ózderindi Bizding Imperatorlyq Úlylyghymyzgha jәne Bizding Múragerlerimizge túraqty adaldyqta ústaugha tiyissinder, Bizding Imperatorlyq Úlylyghymyzdyng pәrmenimen senderge basqa Rossiya bodandarymen, bashqúrttarmen, qalmaqtarmen birge Bizding qyzmetimizge barugha jarlyq  berilgende, sender olarmen birge yqylastarynmen barugha tiyissinder. Bashqúrttargha jәne Jayyq kazaktaryna jәne qalmaqtargha jәne basqa da orys bodandaryna  eshqanday shabuyl, joryq jasamaysyndar, olarmen beybit jәne úryspay ómir sýresinder. Astrahannan, basqa jerlerden  jәne senderge jәne senderding túrghyn jaylaryng men basqa jerlerge  kóshu oryndaryng arqyly  kele jatqan Rossiyanyng bodan kópesteri keruenderine de eshqanday kedergi keltirmey jәne renish tudyrmay, olardy joldaghy barsha qauipten qorghap, ótip bara jatqandarynda barynsha kómektesulering kerek». Hattyng sonynda: «Sening elshilerin, Ebulhair han, bizge kelgenge deyin, Mәskeude bolghandarynda azyq-týlikpen qamtamasyz etilgen,  olargha qaytarynda da bizding syiymyz berilgen,  jәne saghan – Ebulhair hangha – qaytarylghanda, jolgha qajet kólikpen, azyq-týlikpen qamtamasyz etilgen.  Bizding Imperatorlyq Úlylyghymyzdyng meyirine sen, Ebulhair han, senimdi bol», – delindi. Imperatrisa mәtinge rizashylyqpen kóz saldy da, qolyna qauyrsyn qalamsabyn alyp, siyagha maldy. Mәtinning sonyna mәnerlep «Anna» dep jazdy. Asa Joghary mәrtebeli hat «Moskvada, 1731 jylghy aqpannyng 19-shy kýninde», patshayym Anna Ioannovnanyng atynan: «Bizding Memlekettik biylik qúruymyzdyng ekinshi jylynda berildi», – dep rәsimdeldi... 

...Bir aptadan keyin jolgha shyghyp, jarty jylday sapar shekken elshilikter keruenin, qazaq shegine ilikkeninde, Ábilqayyr hannyng sәndi kiyingen eki jýz sarbazdan túratyn qúrmetti qarauyly kýtip aldy da, ýlken saltanatpen hannyng jazghy ordasyna bastap apardy. Alda ózara qighash týsinikter men mýddeler taytalasy tosyp túrghan edi...  

Beybit Qoyshybaev

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