Seysenbi, 3 Tamyz 2021
Tarih 3448 20 pikir 30 Mamyr, 2020 saghat 18:51

31 mamyr – Sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandaryn eske alu kýni

QR Memlekettik hatshysynyng tapsyrmasy boyynsha, QR BGhM Ghylym komiyteti tóraghasynyng 2020 jylghy 25 aqpandaghy búiryghymen qúrylghan júmys (saraptama) toby әzirlegen «Qazaqstandaghy sayasy qughyn-sýrginderding qúrbandaryn zandyq jәne sayasy jaghynan tolyq aqtau»

TÚJYRYMDAMASY

KIRISPE

Kenes Odaghynda I. Stalin qaytys bolghannan keyin hrushevtik «jylymyq» kezinde sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandaryn aqtau bastalyp, ol birneshe kezennen túrdy. Odaqtyng joghary organdary qolgha alghan alghashqy – «hrushevtik» (1953 – 1961 jj.), sodan keyingi – «gorbachevtik-yakovlevtik» (1988 – 1991 jj.)aqtau kezenderinin, sonday-aqtәuelsiz Qazaqstannyng biyligi jýrgizgenaqtau sharalarynyng basty kemshiligi olardyng osy asa manyzdy әri qasiretti problema boyynsha onynretteu nysanasyn jan-jaqty zerttemey, Qazaqstanda oryn alghan sayasy qughyn-sýrginderding merzimderin, qúrbandardyng auqymyn sanaly týrde qysqartyp, olardyng últtyq ereksheligi men negizgi sanattaryn eskermesten, memlekettik aktiler qabyldauynan kórindi. Ókinishke oray,«Jappay sayasy qughyn-sýrginder qúrbandaryn aqtau turaly» 1993 jylghy 14 sәuirdegi Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Zanyn qabyldau kezinde de osy jәne basqa da óreskel qatelikter taghy da qaytalandy.

Osy Zandy, sonday-aq basqa zannamalyq jәne normativtik aktilerdi әzirleu men qabyldau kezinde, tipti ghylymy zertteuler barysynda sayasy qughyn-sýrginninúlty qazaq kisini, birinshiden, adam jәne azamat retinde, ekinshiden, qazaq halqynyng mýddesi men qúqyqtarynyng ókili әri iyesi retinde qughyndau jónindegi ekijaqty tabighaty, ekijaqty mәni men ekijaqty maqsaty bolghany eskerilmedi. Ókinishke oray, búl erekshelik kýni býginge deyin eskerilmey otyr (búl boyynsha taldamalyq anyqtama dayyn). Sonyng saldarynan qúrbandar men japa shekkenderding Qazaqstangha tәn belgili bir sanattary qoldanystaghy zannamanyng qúqyqtyq retteu ayasyna qamtylmay, tys qaldy.

Elimizde memlekettik zorlyq-zombylyqtyn, soghan sәikes sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandarynyng osynshalyqty orasan kóp boluyna basqa sebepterden bólek, bolisheviktik-stalindik biylikting bizding jerimizde Qazkraykomnyng Birinshi hatshysy F. Goloshekin bastama jasaghan, sipaty jóninen – halyqqa qarsy, saldary jóninen asa qanqúily joba «Qazaqstandaghy kishi qazan» siyaqty baghdarlamalardy sayasy eksperiyment retinde jýzege asyrghany sebep boldy. Múnday baghdarlamalardyng «tabysty» týrde iske asyryluy jeke halyqtyng kapitalizmdi attap ótip, feodalizmnen sosializmmen kommunizmge birden kóshetini jónindegi ortodoksaldy-markstik dogmanyng dúrys ekenin dәleldeuge tiyis edi. Orayy kelgende aita keteyik, «Alashtyn» bilimdi basshylary sol kezding ózinde Qazaqstannyng búdan ózgeshe, órkeniyetti, europalyq damu jolyn úsynghan bolatyn.Býgingi tarih «alashordalyqtardyn» aqiqat joldy tandaghanyn aighaqtap otyr.

Túnghysh Preziydent – Elbasy  N.Nazarbaev ózining «Ruhany janghyru» atty baghdarlamalyq maqalasynda kommunizmge progressivti, onyng ishinde ghylymy júrtshylyq atynan bagha berip, ony qazaq halqyn apatqa úshyratqan populistik iydeologiya dep atady.Búl bizding últymyzdy qan qaqsatqan iydeologiyagha ghylymy túrghydan berilgen sypayy bagha ghana. Stalinizmning halyqqa qarsy sayasatynan shekken ziyanymyz ben onyng naqty qúrbandarynyng sany men sanattaryn aiqyndap, sonyng negizinde osy adamdardy zandyq jәne sayasy jaghynan tolyq aqtau – bizding boryshymyz. 

Sol kezde«Biyik maqsat ketken shyghyndy aqtaydy» degen bolisheviktik úrannyng dәuiri jýrip túrdy: halyqqa qatysty barlyq zorlyq-zombylyq nysanyna rúqsat berildi, memlekettik terror, kóptegen jazalau aksiyalary men sayasy qughyn-sýrginder jýrgizildi. Kenes biyligin kýshtep ornatyp, aghasy-inisin óltirgen azamat soghysyn qoldan tútatu, bitispes taptyq arazdyqty qozdyryp, tәrkileudi, újymdastyru men basqa da nauqandardy jýrgizu, 1920-21 jj. jәne 1931-33 jj. alapat ashtyqty qoldan jasau nәtiyjesinde qazaq halqynyng jartysy qyryldy. Qazaqstanda osy qughyn-sýrginderding qúrbandary әli kýnge deyin sayasy túrghydan aqtalghan joq.

Tәuelsizdik jariyalanghan song ile-shala, yaghny 1993 jylghy 14 sәuirdegi Zandy dayyndau barysynda oghan Resey Federasiyasynyng soghan úqsas zany negiz etip alyndy. Mamandar men ghalymdardyng Qazaqstandaghy sayasy qughyn-sýrginderding sipaty men erekshelikterin zertteu jәne eskeru turaly talaby elenbedi. Tipti biylikting osy Zangha Jogharghy Kenes Tóralqasynyng QR Jogharghy Kenesining deputaty jәne QR ÚGhA akademiygi M.Qozybaev basqarghan atyshuly Komissiyasynyng sol kezde býkil halyqqa jariya etilgen qyzmet nәtiyjelerin qosu jónindegi uәdesi de oryndalmady. Sondyqtan da júrtshylyq pen ghalymdar Qazaqstandaghy sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandaryn zandyq jәne sayasy jaghynan tolyq aqtau mәselesin úzaq uaqyt boyy kóterip keledi.

Osy mәsele boyynsha Tújyrymdamanyng negizgi erejelerine, maqsattaryna, qaghidattary men mindetterine obektivti ghylymy taldau jýrgizu, olardy әzirleu, sonday-aq ony Qazaqstan Respublikasynda iske asyrudyng tetikteri men úsynystaryn әzirleu ýshin atalghan problema boyynsha kórnekti ghalymdar men mamandar arasynan saraptama toby qúryldy.

1-bólim. TÚJYRYMDAMANYNG MAQSATY, QAGhIDATTARY MEN MINDETTERI

Tújyrymdamanyng negizgi maqsatyQazaqstandaghy sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandarynyng barlyq sanatyn zandyq jәne sayasy jaghynan tolyq aqtau júmysyn tabysty týrde jýrgizu ýshin is-sharalar men memlekettik aktilerdi әzirleu, qabyldau jәne iske asyru bolyp tabylady. Búl qazaq halqynruhany qayta týletip, onyng qoghamdyq sanasyn janghyrtugha, eldegi qoghamdyq senim dengeyin arttyrugha yqpal etedi, sonday-aq Qazaqstannyng órkeniyetti jәne demokratiyalyq әlemde qúrmetke bólenip, layyqty oryngha ie boluyn qamtamasyz etedi.

Tújyrymdamanyng negizgi qaghidattary osy problema boyynsha qúbylystardy, faktiler men qújattardy halyqaralyq standarttar negizinde obektivti, jan-jaqty, dәiekti týrde baghalau bolyp tabylady.

Jogharyda atalghan maqsatqa jetu jәne atalghan qaghidattardy saqtau ýshin mynaday mindetterdi sheshu qajet:

- «Qazaqstandaghy sayasy qughyn-sýrginderding qúrbandaryn zandyq jәne sayasy jaghynan tolyq aqtau» tújyrymdamasynyng iske asyryluyn baghdarlamalyq jәne normativtik-qúqyqtyq qújattarmen qamtamasyz etu;

- Qazaqstannyng azattyghy men tәuelsizdigi ýshin qazaqstandyqtar men basqa memleketterding azamattary jasaghan batyrlyq pen erlikting memlekettik túrghydan bizding kópúltty halqymyzdyng kóptegen buynynyng tarihiy-mәdeni, sayasy jәne bagha jetpes iygiligi deptanyluyn qamtamasyz etu;

- sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandarynyng aqtalmaghan barlyq sanatyn sayasiy-qúqyqtyq jaghynan tolyq aqtau ýshin «Sayasy qughyn-sýrginderding qúrbandaryn aqtau turaly» jana QR Zanyn qabyldau nemese qoldanystaghy «Jappay sayasy qughyn-sýrginder qúrbandaryn aqtau turaly» QR Zanyna jәne basqa da zannamalyq aktilerge irgeli ózgerister men tolyqtyrular engizu qajet;

- jariyaly týrde jappay aqtau ýshin memlekettik tәuelsizdigin jariyalaghan basqa elder, onyng ishinde TMD elderi siyaqty Preziydentting Jarlyghyn jәne «Qazaqstannyng azattyghy men tәuelsizdigi ýshin kýreskender turaly» nemese «Otan qorghaushylar turaly» Zang qabyldau qajet;

- óz Otanymyzdyng shynayy patriottary men qorghaushylaryn tәrbiyeleu ýshin Qazaqstannyng azattyghy men tәuelsizdigi jolynda kýresken qazaqstandyqtar men basqa memleketter azamattarynyng batyrlyghy men erligin bizding halqymyzdyng jadynda mәngi qaldyru;

- «Qazaqstandaghy sayasy qughyn-sýrginderding qúrbandaryn zandyq jәne sayasy jaghynan tolyq aqtau» tújyrymdamasyn iske asyru sharalary men joldary jóninde túraqty negizde aqparattyq sýiemeldeudi qamtamasyz etu jәne basqa da sharalar.

2-bólim. QAZAQSTANDAGhY SAYaSY QUGhYN-SÝRGINDERDING QÚRBANDARYN ZANDYQ JÁNE SAYaSY JAGhYNAN TOLYQ AQTAU       

Elimizdejýrgizilgen sayasy qughyn-sýrginderding basty ereksheligi mynada – patsha biyliginin, sonday-aq kenes ókimetining Qazaqstandaghy qolshoqparlary jýrgizgen jazalau sharalary eng aldymen Qazaqstannyng azattyghy, tәuelsizdigi men aumaqtyq tútastyghy ýshin kýreskenderge – últ-azattyq kýreske qatysushylargha (qaharmandargha) baghyttalyp, solargha qatysty jýieli týrde jýzege asyryldy. 

Álemning óz tәuelsizdigin jariyalaghanbarlyq derlik memleketi birinshi kezekti shara retinde óz halqy men Otanynyng azattyghy, tәuelsizdigi jolynda kýreskeni ýshin búrynghy biylik rejimderi memlekettik qudalaugha jәne qughyn-sýrginge úshyratqan úl-qyzdaryn – qaharmandaryn aqtap, últtyq batyr dәrejesine kóterip, úlyqtady. Búl – endi irgesi qalanghan әrbir memleket ústanugha tiyis әlemdik praktika. Qazaqstan tәuelsizdik alghannan bergi otyz jylgha juyq uaqyt ishinde qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandarynyng osy sanattaryn zandyq, eng bastysy, sayasy jaghynan tolyq aqtau boyynsha birde-bir arnauly normativtik memlekettik akt qabyldamady. «Jappay sayasy qughyn-sýrginder qúrbandaryn aqtau turaly» QR Zanynda (14.04.1993 j.) qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandarynynbúl sanaty mýldem aitylmaghan. Búl qughyn-sýrgin ózining merzimi jóninen eng úzaq bolyp, barynsha jýieli týrde jýrgizilgenine, onyng tyrnaghyna ilikken adamdar sanynyng kóp ekenine qaramastan, osy Zanda Qazaqstannyng azattyghy men tәuelsizdigi ýshin kýresip, qúrban bolghandar turaly birde-bir sóz joq. 

Kenes dәuirinde qazaq últy, dәlirek aitqanda, onyng sayasy jәne qoghamdyq elitasy obektivti jәne subektivti sebepterge oray óz halqynyng mýddelerin júmyla qorghaugha qabiletti bola almady. Bizding búrynghy biylik kezinde memlekettik jәne qoghamdyq qyzmette jetkilikti tәjiriybe jinaqtaghan, elge tanymal,kózi ashyq, eti tiri, bilimdi jәne bilikti patriottarymyzpartiya-kenes organdarynda júmys isteuge jiberilmedi, tipti, qyzmetke tartylghan kýnning ózinde de ol orynda túraqtatpay, tez shygharyp tastady. Óitkeni olar qay jerde de halyqtyng mýddesin prinsipti týrde qorghap, sol ýshin «últshyl» degen jalang aiyptaugha úshyrap, qamaugha alyndy, jer audaryldy, atyldy.

Qazaqstandaghy jappay sayasy qughyn-sýrginderding aqtalmaghan qúrbandaryn qosa alghanda, 20-dan astam sanattyng (bizding esebimiz boyynsha) ishinen is jýzinde 5-6 sanat qana, onyng ishinde «ekilik», «ýshtik», «alqalyq» sottardep atalatyndardyng ýkimderimen jәne sheshimderimen, prokuraturanyng «erekshe kenesterimen» sottalghan adamdar, sonday-aq Kenes Odaghynyng basqa respublikalarynan Qazaqstangha kýshtep qonys audarylghan últtardyng ókilderi zandyq túrghydan aqtaldy.

Ghalymdardyng saraptama toby sayasy qughyn-sýrginder qúrbandarynyng myna sanattary zandyq, sonday-aq sayasy jaghynan mindetti týrde tolyq aqtalugha tiyis degen qorytyndygha keldi:

1.Qazaqstannyng azattyghy men tәuelsizdigi ýshin órkeniyetti týrde kýresken halyqtyng (adamdar tobynyn), sayasy jәne qoghamdyq úiymdardyn, sonday-aq osynday iydealdary men maqsattary ýshin qoghamdyq-sayasi, ruhani, qyzmettik, ghylymi, mәdeny jәne shygharmashylyq salalarda memlekettik qudalau men qughyn-sýrginge úshyratylghan adamdardyng sayasy әreketteri eskiru merzimine qaramastan, sayasy túrghydan aqtalugha tiyis. Atap aitqanda «Alash» halyqtyn-patriottyq jәne demokratiyalyq qozghalysy men partiyasynyn, «Qazaq halqyn qorghau odaghynyn» (Oral qalasy), «ESEP» (Qaraghandy oblysy), «Jas úlan» (Pavlodar oblysy) partiyalarynyng qatysushylary, 1916 jylghy jәne 1986 jylghy últ-azattyq kóterilisterge qatysushylar, sonday-aq qazaq halqynyng azattyghy men Qazaqstannyng tәuelsizdigi ýshin kýresken basqa qoghamdyq-sayasy qozghalystar men úiymdardyng qatysushylary, jekelegen qaharmandar sayasy túrghydan baghalanyp, aqtalugha tiyis. Mysaly, N. Qúlmaghambetov, H. Qojahmet jәne basqalar osy sanatqa jatqyzylugha tiyis. Búrynghy Jetisu jәne Syrdariya oblystarynda túrghan, 1918 jyly M. Tynyshpaev pen M. Shoqay basqarghan Týrkistan avtonomiyasyn qúrugha qatysqany ýshin qatygez, qanqúily sayasy qughyn-sýrginge úshyraghan otandastarymyz da sayasy jәne zandyq jaghynan aqtalugha tiyis.Sebebi búl bizding әli kýnge deyin aqtandaghynan arylmaghan tarihymyzdyn, tolyq aqtalmaghan qaharmandarymyzdyng bir bóligi.

2, Tәuelsiz Qazaqstan «qazaq burjuaziyalyq últshyldyghy» (keyingi kenes dәuirinde – «qazaq últshyldyghy») dep atalatyngha halyqaralyq normalar men ghylymy standarttargha sәikes obektivti bagha beruge jәne osy jalang aiyptyng qúrbany bolghan barlyq adamdy sayasy túrghydan aqtaugha mindetti. Búrynghy Kenes Odaghynyng bolisheviktik-stalindik, sodan keyingi kommunistik biyligi V. Leninning әrbir últtyng ózin-ózi jeke memleket bolyp shyghugha deyin aiqyndau boyynsha ajyramas qúqyghy bar ekeni turaly barlyq sayasy jәne ghylymy múrasyn satyp, qazaq jәne basqa halyqtardyng últ-azattyq kýresin basyp-janshu, Qazaqstannyng azattyghy men tәuelsizdigi turaly iydeyanyng ózin qúrtu, sonday-aq resmy memlekettik qudalau men qughyn-sýrgindi aqtau maqsatynda qazaq halqyn «burjuaziyalyq últshyldyqta» aiyptady. Osy iydeyany jaqtaushylargha «últshyl» tanbasy taghyldy. Sóitip Qazaqstannyng azattyghy men tәuelsizdigi turaly iydeya qughyn-sýrginge úshyrap, qazaqstandyqtardyng qoghamdyq jәne jeke sanasynan alastatyldy. Sondyqtan da Qazaqstannyng últ azattyghy ýshin kýresip, qúrban bolghandar ghana emes, últ-azattyq iydeyasy da sayasy túrghydan aqtalugha tiyis.

Bolisheviktik-kommunistik biylik jәne ol qúrghan KSRO OGPU-NKVD-KGB, IIM organdary, olardyng Qazaqstandaghy qúrylymdary (qolshoqparlary), prokuratura organdary men sottar 70 jyl boyy býkil salada, jýieli týrde «últshyldyq oshaghy» men «últshyldardy» tauyp, Qazaqstannyng azattyghy men tәuelsizdigi ýshin kýresken naghyz qaharmandardy qughyn-sýrginge (ashyq jәne jabyq týrde) úshyratty. «Qazaq burjuaziyalyq últshyldyghymen» jәne «últshyldyqpen» kýres degen jeleumen últtyq sayasi, shygharmashylyq, ghylymi, ruhany elitanyng ýzdik bóligi joyyldy. 

Sondyqtan da Qazaqstannyng azattyghy men tәuelsizdigi ýshin kýreskenderding batyrlyghy men erligin memlekettik dengeyde bizding kópúltty halqymyzdyng eng biyik memlekettik qúndylyghy, últtyq qazynasy dep tanu qajet. Búl qazyna qazaqstandyqtardyng qazirgi jәne bolashaq úrpaghyn patriottyqqa jәne adamgershilikke tәrbiyeleu ýshin saqtalugha jәne mәngi este qaldyrylugha tiyis. Atap aitqanda, qazaq halqy men Qazaqstannyng mýddelerin qorghaghany ýshin «qazaq burjuaziyalyq últshyly» dep aiyptalyp, әrtýrli sayasy qughyn-sýrginge úshyratylghan, 1911 jyly Oral qalasynda «Qazaqstan» gazetin ashqan aqyn Eleusin Búiriyn, ekonomika professory bolghan alghashqy qazaq Ázimbay Lekerov, atu jazasyna kesilgen alghashqy qyzymyz Shahzada Shonanova, әdebiyetshi Esmaghambet Ysmayylov, tarihshy Ermúhan Bekmahanov, Qazrevkomnyng mýshesi Timofey Siydelinikov, muzykatanushy Aleksandr Zataevich, «Alash» partiyasynyng qyrghyz filialyn ashqan Ishanәli Arabaev, din qyzmetshisi Aqmyrza ishan, dәriger Ábubәkir Aldiyarov jәne Qazaqstannyng basqa da ondaghan myng naghyz patrioty – qaharmany jariyaly týrde sayasy túrghydan aqtalugha tiyis.

3, Tәuelsiz Qazaqstan sayasy sebepter boyynsha sotsyz jәne tergeusiz óltirilgen ondaghan myng qúrbangha (zertteushiler onyng sany búdan әldeqayda kóp deydi) – 1917 jyldan bastap 1930-shy jyldardyng ortasyna deyin Qazaqstanda kenes ýkimetin kýshtep jәne zansyz ornatugha, taptyq, tektik, últtyq jәne diny belgisi boyynsha qudalaugha qarsy, sonday-aq tәrkileu, újymdastyru, mal, astyq dayyndau jónindegi jәne basqa da sayasy nauqandargha qarsy boy kótergen
372 (resmy emes derekter boyynsha 400-den astam) halyq kóterilisine qatysushylargha sayasy bagha berip, olardy aqtaugha tiyis. Barlyq kóterilis boyynsha sotsyz, tergeusiz óltirilgen adamdardyng jalpy sanyn anyqtau asa manyzdy.

4, Tarihymyzda tayauda ghana oryn alghan óte soraqy faktiler – 1916 jylghy últ-azattyq kóteriliske qatysushylardy patshanyng jazalaushy jasaqtary memlekettik qudalau men qughyn-sýrginge úshyratqan kezende, әsirese kenes ókimeti ornatylghan kezden bastap 1930-shy jyldardyng sonyna deyin bolisheviktik-stalindik rejimning Qazaqstandaghy halyqqa qarsy jәne qylmysker aksiyalary men is-әreketining saldarynan jýzdegen myng (keybir zertteushiler millionnan astam dep tabandy týrde dәleldep otyr) qazaqtyng Qazaqstannan quylu faktisi boyynsha memlekettik sheshimder qabyldap, osy jaghdaygha memlekettik bagha berilip, jat júrtqa ketken qandastarymyz sayasiy-qúqyqtyq jaghynan aqtalugha tiyis. Býgingi kýni olardyng 5 millionnan astam úrpaghy (qazaq halqynyng ýshten bir bóligi) ózining tarihy Otanynan tys jerde ómir sýrude. Olar ózderining ata-babalaryn tughan jerinen quyp jiberu faktisine tәuelsiz Qazaqstan memlekettik dengeyde obektivti sayasy bagha beredi dep ýmittenip, kýtip otyr.

5, Baylardyn, jartylay feodaldar men kulaktardyng menshigi men mýlkin tәrkileu nauqanyn jýrgizu kezeninde sottalghan adamdar da zandyq jaghynan tolyq aqtalugha tiyis. Osy nauqan kezinde menshigin tәrkileu, jauapqa tartu jәne otbasy mýshelerimen, tuystarymen birge jer audaru maqsatynda әrbir baygha, kulakqa, jartylay feodalgha (tipti ortashagha da), auyldyng kózi ashyq azamattaryna qozghalghan qylmystyq ister boyynsha ýkimderding kýshin joyyp, qylmystyq jәne әkimshilik jauaptylyqqa tartylghan adamdardy aqtau qajet. Arhiv derekteri boyynsha osynday adamdardyng sany tek 1930 jyldyng qantar-mausymynyng ózinde 54 625 bay, iri jәne orta sharua qojalyghyn (200 mynnan astam adam) qúraghan. QazOAK pen QAKSR HKK-ning 1930 jylghy 19 aqpandaghy Qaulysymen qúrylghan, I. Qúramysov, A. Asylbekov jәne V. Olishanskiy basqarghan komissiyanyn, Respublikanyng oblystary men audandaryndaghy osyghan úqsas komissiyalardyng barlyq materialdaryn qúpiyasyzdandyru qajet.

6, Dinge qyzmet etkeni ýshin sayasy qughyn-sýrginge úshyraghan dәstýrli din ókilderi sayasiy-qúqyqtyq jaghynan tolyq aqtalugha tiyis. «Sopy» arnayy operasiyasy men basqa da dinge qarsy nauqandardyng jýzdegen, myndaghan qúrbany әli kýnge deyin aqtalghan joq. Reseyde búl sanat sonau 1996 jyly RF Preziydentining jarlyghymen aqtaldy.

7, 1939 – 1945 jyldary kenes basshylyghynyng kinәsi men keshirilmes salghyrttyghynyng saldarynan fashistik Germaniyada, Finlyandiya men basqa da europa elderinde tútqynda bolghan qazaqstandyq әskery tútqyndar zandyq jaghynan aqtalugha tiyis. Olar eki imperiyalyq-diktatorlyq memleketting agressiyashylhalyqaralyq sayasatynan zardap shegip, konslagerilerding barlyq qiyndyghy men azabyn bastan keshti. Alghashqy mýmkindik tughan kezde-aq kóterilisshiler qataryna, partizan otryadtaryna, odaqtastardyng әskerleri men Kenes armiyasynyng jaghyna ótti. Olar Qazaqstan men onyng halqyn satpady. Resey Federasiyasyndaәskery tútqyndar 1995 jyldyng ózinde Preziydentting Jarlyghymen sayasy qughyn-sýrginning qúrbandary retinde aqtaldy.

8, Et, astyq dayyndau josparyn oryndamaghany ýshin sayasy qughyn-sýrginge úshyrap, Qazaqstan aumaghynda qoldanylghan RKFSR QK-ning 107-baby boyynsha sottalghan ondaghan myng qazaqstandyq ta zandyq jaghynan tolyq aqtalugha tiyis. Tek qana 1928 jyldyng qantarynan 1929 jyldyng 15 jeltoqsanyna deyin osy bap boyynsha 52 300 adam sottalghan. Júmysqa keshikkeni, júmystan rúqsatsyz ketkeni, astyqtyng birneshe sabaghyn әketkeni jәne basqa da bolmashyaghattyqtary ýshin sottalghan tómengi jәne orta buyn qyzmetkerleri de zandyq jaghynan aqtalugha tiyis. Búl boyynsha 1932 jyldyng tamyzynan bastapbar-joghy bir jyl ishinde 33 345 qazaqstandyq sottalghan.

9, «Bandylyq qúralymnyng qatysushylary», «shpiondar», «otandy satqandar», «diyversanttar» dep atalatyn, qoldanystaghy «Jappay sayasy qughyn-sýrginder qúrbandaryn aqtau turaly» QR Zanynyng 6-babyna sәikes aqtaluyna mýldem tyiym salynghan adamdar da zandyq jaghynan aqtalugha tiyis. Búl ýshin osy Zannan atalghan bap alyp tastalugha ne tolyqtay qayta qaralugha tiyis.

10, Ónirlerde oidan shygharylghan basqa aiyptaular men baptar boyynsha sottalghan, «Alash» qozghalysy men partiyasynyng qatardaghy qatysushylary (tipti oghan tilektes, niyettes bolyp, úiymdastyrushylyq, materialdyq jәne qarjylyq kómek kórsetkender), sonday-aq jergilikti jerlerde sayasy qughyn-sýrginge úshyraghan «alash» әskery qúralymdarynyng on mynday sarbazy men sardary zandyq jәne sayasy jaghynan tolyq aqtalugha tiyis.

11, Qazaqstannyng azattyghy men tәuelsizdigi ýshin kýreste orys, evrey, ózbek, ukraiyn, belorus, úighyr, qyrghyz jәne basqa da últ ókilderi – internasionalister kórsetken batyrlyq pen erlikting jýzdegen, myndaghan faktilerine, solardyng arasynan shyqqan sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandaryna memlekettik bagha berilip, olar sayasy túrghydan aqtalugha tiyis.

12, Ózining shyqqan tegine, qyzmetining týrine baylanysty azamattyq qúqyqtarynan, eng aldymen saylau qúqyghynan aiyrylghan adamdar da qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandary retinde sayasy jaghynan aqtalugha tiyis. Olardyng qataryna din qyzmetshileri, baylar, kulaktar, olardyng otbasy mýsheleri jәne ózderining sayasy jәne azamattyq qúqyqtarynan aiyrylghan basqa da qúrbandar (barlyghy 30 sanat) jatady.

13, Bas prokuraturanyn, IIM-nin, ÚQK-ning derekteri alynghannan, osy vedomstvolardyng arhivteri qúpiyalyqtan shygharylyp, olardyng jabyq qorlaryna zertteushilerding qoly jetkennen keyin, sonday-aq zang jobalaryn әzirlep, Parlamentte qarau barysynda sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandarynyng janadan ashylatyn, aqtalmaghan basqa sanattary da aqtalugha tiyis.

14, Prokuratura, IIM jәne ÚQK organdaryndaqylmystyq tәrtiptegi qughyn-sýrginderding ózderine qatysty is qozghalyp, aiyp taghylghan jәne prosestik sheshimder shygharylghan, keyinnen aqtalghan qúrbandary boyynsha anaghúrlym dәl statistikalyq derekter bar. Ákimshilik tәrtiptegi sayasy qughyn-sýrginderding qúrbandary ishinen tek Qazaqstangha deportasiyalanghan halyqtardyng ókilderine qatysty ghana aqtau turaly meylinshe tolyq statistikalyq derekter bar.

1993 jylghy 14 sәuirdegi Zandy oryndaushylardyng aituynsha, osy Zanda kórsetilgen, aqtalugha jatatyn sayasy qughyn-sýrginning onnan astam týri (jer audaru, itjekkenge aidau, enbek jauyngerleri, arnauly qonystargha jiberu jәne basqalar) boyynsha derekter tolyq emes nemese mýldem joq. Búl osy qughyn-sýrgin týrleri boyynsha qúrbandardy aqtau júmysy tolyq jýrgizilmegenin aighaqtaydy.

1993 jylghy 14 sәuirdegi Zandy oryndaushylardyng aituynsha, osy Zanda kórsetilgen, aqtalugha jatatyn sayasy qughyn-sýrginning onnan astam týri (jer audaru, itjekkenge aidau, enbek jauyngerleri, arnauly qonystargha jiberu jәne basqalar) boyynsha derekter tolyq emes nemese mýldem joq. Búl osy qughyn-sýrgin týrleri boyynsha qúrbandardy aqtau júmysy tolyq jýrgizilmegenin aighaqtaydy.

3-bólim. TÚJYRYMDAMANY ISKE ASYRUDYNG BASYM BAGhYTTARY

Tújyrymdamany iske asyrudyng basym baghyttarynda mynaday is-sharalar kózdeledi:

1) Qazaqstandaghy sayasy qughyn-sýrginderding qúrbandaryn zandyq jәne sayasy jaghynan tolyq aqtau isteri boyynsha memlekettik komissiya qúru. Komissiya memlekettik biylik organdarynyng belgilengen is-sharalardy búljytpay oryndau boyynsha ýilesimdi is-qimylyn, sonday-aq qajetti zannamalyq jәne normativtik aktilerding qabyldanuyn qamtamasyz etetin ýilestirushi organ bolady.

2) Kimdi Qazaqstandaghy sayasy qughyn-sýrginderding qúrbany jәne sodan japa shekken dep sanaugha bolatynyn baghalaytyn ólshemsharttardy anyqtau. Osy mindet ýshin sayasy qughyn-sýrginderding tarihy boyynsha aqtau prosesterin ghylymy zertteu jәne jýrgizu tәsilderin birizge týsiru maqsatynda arnayy ensiklopediya nemese sózdik týrinde jalpygha birdey qabyldanghan mamandandyrylghan glossariy(«Otarshyldyq pen totalitarizm glossariyi») әzirleu qajet. 

3) Qoldanystaghy zannamagha, onyng ishinde «Memlekettik qúpiyalar turaly» QR Zanyna jasalghan taldau sayasy qughyn-sýrginder jónindegi arhiv materialdaryn qúpiya ústau men olargha, әsirese, ghalymdary men zertteushilerding qol jetkizuin shekteuge eshqanday qúqyqtyq-zandyq negiz joq ekenin kórsetti. Kerisinshe, osy Zannyng 17-babynyng 11) tarmaqshasynda «...sayasi, әleumettik jәne basqa da sebepter boyynsha jappay qughyn-sýrgin turaly, onyng ishinde arhivtegi mәlimetter qúpiyalandyrylmaugha tiyis» dep tikeley kórsetilgen.

«Jappay sayasy qughyn-sýrginder qúrbandaryn aqtau turaly» QR Zanyndaghy aqtalghan adamdardyng tuystaryna qylmystyq isting prosestik sipattaghy qújattarymen tanysu qúqyghyn bermeytin normany (16-bap) alyp tastau qajet. Sarapshylardyng tújyrymdauynsha, bizding kýsh qúrylymdary bastama jasaghan búl norma eshqanday syn kótermeydi jәne ol qamaudaghylardy qorlau men azaptau, adam qúqyqtaryn óreskel búzu, qújattardy búrmalau faktileri men jazalaushy organdardyng basqa da izgilikke jat әdisterin jasyru maqsatynda qabyldanghan.

4) Sayasy qughyn-sýrginderding aqtalmaghan qúrbandarynyng tizbesin barynsha tolyq jәne obektivti týrde jasau ýshin býgingi kýnning ózinde memlekettik dengeyde tiyisti sheshim qabyldap, IIM-nin, ÚQK men Bas prokuraturanyng basshylyghyna osy organdar arhivterining jabyq qorlaryna ghalymdar men zertteushilerding erkin qol jetkizuin qamtamasyz etu jóninde jazbasha núsqama (núsqau) beru qajet.  

4-bólim. TÚJYRYMDAMANY ISKE ASYRU NYSANDARY MEN ÁDISTERI

Qughyn-sýrginder qúrbandarynyng osy sanattaryn sayasy jaghynan aqtau, sonday-aq bizding qaharmandarymyz Qazaqstannyng azattyghy, tәuelsizdigi men aumaqtyq tútastyghy ýshin jasaghan batyrlyq pen erlikti memlekettik baghalau osy mәsele boyynsha Joghary memlekettik aktiler qabyldansa ghana mýmkin bolmaq.

1. Bastapqy kezde, mysaly 31 mamyr – Sayasy qughyn-sýrginderding qúrbandaryn eske alu kýnine nemese 16 jeltoqsan – Tәuelsizdik kýnine oray jәne «Tәuelsizdikting 30 jyldyghyn» dayyndau jәne ótkizu ayasynda «Qazaqstannyng azattyghy men tәuelsizdigi ýshin kýreskender turaly» QR PreziydentininJarlyghyn qabyldaghan jón (Jarlyqtyng jobasy dayyn). Osy Jarlyqta Preziydent Ýkimetke osy qújatpen attas zang jobasyn әzirlep, Parlamentke engizudi, sonday-aq «Sayasy qughyn-sýrginderding qúrbandaryn aqtau turaly» jana zang jobasyn nemese qoldanystaghy zannamagha irgeli ózgerister men tolyqtyrular engizu turaly zang jobasyn әzirleudi tapsyrghan bolar edi. Kórsetilgen Jarlyq elding sayasy ómirinde kópten kýtilgen asa iri oqigha bolyp, biylikting imidjin nyghaytatyn, osy problema boyynsha ózekti mәselelerdi sheshuge yqpal etip, ghylymiy-zertteu júmysyna jol ashatyn edi.

Atalghan zannamalyq aktilerdi qabyldap, belgilengen sharalardy iske asyru budjetten shyghys shygharudy talap etpeydi, sebebi býgingi kýni sayasy qughyn-sýrginderding kózi tiri tikeley qúrbandary qalghan joq, al olardyng úrpaqtary men mýddeli qoghamdyq úiymdar tek qana osy adamdardyng zandyq jәne sayasy jaghynan tolyq aqtaluyn talap etip otyr.

2, Parlament deputattarynyng qazirgi, sonday-aq bolashaq qúramyna QR Jogharghy Kenesining 1993 jylghy 14 sәuirde «Jappay sayasy qughyn-sýrginder qúrbandaryn aqtau turaly» QR Zanynyng qabyldauyna baylanysty qúrylghan eki komissiyasynyng («Sayasy qughyn-sýrginder qúrbandarynyng aqtaluyn baqylau jónindegi komissiya», «Zannamalyq aktilerdi, Ýkimettin, partiya organdary men basqa da organdardyng sheshimderin qúpiyasyzdandyru jónindegi komissiya») júmys nәtiyjelerine taldau jasap, osy Zannyng tiyisinshe oryndalmau sebepterin anyqtau jóninde ótinish jasau qajet dep esepteymiz.

3, Qazaqtardyng óz Otanynan quylu sebepteri men mәn-jaylaryn anyqtau boyynsha memlekettik komissiya qúryp, bosqyndar men qaytys bolghandardyng sanyn jәne qazirgi kezge deyin jabyq bolyp kelgen jәne zerttelmegen basqa da mәselelerdi anyqtaudy, sonday-aq memlekettik dengeyde tiyisti sheshimder qabyldaudy úsynamyz. Qazaqstannan quylyp, sayasy qughyn-sýrginnen bosqyn kebin kiygen adamdardyng shetelde túratyn úrpaqtary jәne elimizding bolashaghy ýshin búl óte manyzdy.

4, Saraptama-júmys toby QR BGhM-nyng basshylyghynan:

- Sh.Sh. Uәlihanov atyndaghy Tarih jәne etnologiya institutyna baghdarlamalyq-nysanaly qarjylandyru shenberinde «Qazaqstandaghy sayasiqughyn-sýrginder jәne olardyng qúrbandaryn aqtau prosesi: derekqordy qúru» degen taqyrypta ghylymiy-zertteu júmystaryn jýrgizudi tapsyruyn;

- Qazaqstan Respublikasy Tәuelsizdigining 30 jyldyghyn merekeleuge baylanysty Qazaqstannyng azattyghy men tәuelsizdigi ýshin kýreskenderdi (qaharmandardy) aqtau jәne olardyng batyrlyghy men erligin mәngi este qaldyru jónindegi otandyq jәne sheteldik ghylymiy-taldamalyq materialdardyng jinaghyn shygharudy  ótinedi.

5, Sayasy qughyn-sýrginderdi ortalyqtandyryp zertteu jәne aqtau prosesterin jýrgizu maqsatynda últtyq dengeyde mamandandyrylghan vedomstvo, mysaly Últtyq este saqtau institutyn (europa elderining tәjiriybesi boyynsha) qúrudy úsynamyz. Atalghan Instituttyng respublikalyq manyzy bar barlyq qalada, oblys ortalyqtarynda filialdary bolugha tiyis. Mysaly, 2018 jylghy 16 jeltoqsanda Almaty oblysy Talghar audanynyng Janalyq auylynda ashylghan, «Últtyq Azaly Ata Beyiti» últtyq aza tútu orny bolyp tabylatyn, sayasy qughyn-sýrginderding qúrbandaryn eske alu muzeyi osynday filialdardyng biri bola alady.

Qoryta kele, osy Tújyrymdama tәuelsiz Qazaqstannyng jәne qazaqstandyqtardyng qazirgi úrpaghynyng jazyqsyz jazagha úshyrap, qaza tapqan, azapty synaqtar men qughyn-sýrginderden ótken ondaghan, jýzdegen myng ata-babamyzdyng esteligi aldyndaghy qasiyetti boryshymyzdy kesh bolsa da oryndauy ýshin negiz bolady dep ýmittenemiz. Búl bizding aruaqtar men qaharmandardyng aldyndaghy mindetimiz!

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