Júma, 27 Qarasha 2020
COVID-19 QAZAQSTANDA. Júqtyrghandar — 128400. Jazylghandar — 114821. Qaytys bolghandar — 1990
Alashorda 3966 14 pikir 16 Mamyr, 2020 saghat 16:37

Kangiu patshalyghy – Qanlylar qúrghan memleket

Ejelgi grek tarihshylary kangiu taypasy saq-skif halqynan ekenin jazady(1). Qytay jazbalary b.d.d. II ghasyrda kangiu taypasy tauly aimaqta otyrghanyn, olargha kórshi alan (úlan-lani) taypasy otyrghanyn bayandaydy. Alan taypasy – huni halqynan, al Huni imperiyasy aimaghy negizinen qazirgi Mongholiya jerinde boldy. Resey tarihshylary kangiuler otyrghan aimaq dep Ferghana oipatynyng soltýstik-batysyndaghy tauly alqapty kórsetedi. Dúrysynda, kangiu taypasy b.d.d. II ghasyrda qazirgi Jonghar Alatauy dep atalyp jýrgen tauly aimaqta otyrghany qytay derekterinen bayqalady.

Óitkeni, Lev Gumiylev qytay derekterining kómegimen b.d.d. I ghasyrdaghy Kangiu patshalyghy men Ýisýn memleketining shekarasy Shu ózeni ekenin, Kangiu patshalyghy osy ózenning soltýstigine qaray jatqanyn jәne Kangiu biyleushileri Huni imperiyasy biyleushilerine tәueldi bolghanyn dәleldeydi(2). Saq halqynyng ózge taypalary el shetindegi tauly aimaqta otyrghan taypany, yaghni, qanghyp elden jyraqtap, dalany tastap ketken taypany «qanghy-ýi» dep ataghan tәrizdi. Búl atau ejelgi grek jazbasynda – «kanghiy», qytay jazbalarynda «kangiu» bolyp sәl búrmalanyp tanbalanghan.

Atalghan tauly aimaqta b.d.d. II ghasyrda alan (úlan-lyani) taypasymen kórshi otyrghan kangiu-qanghyýy taypasy Huni imperiyasy yqpalyna týskeni anyq. Óitkeni, b.d.d. I ghasyrda osy taudyng batysynda jatqan saq dalasynda (qazirgi qazaq dalasynda) Kangiu patshalyghy payda bolady, onyng Huni imperiyasyna vassaldy tәueldilikte bolghanyn Lev Gumiylev naqty derektermen kórsetedi (2). Demek, b.d.d. II ghasyrda «elding shetindegi tauda» otyrghan qanghyýi-kangiu taypasy b.d.d. I ghasyrynda Huni imperiyasy kómegimen saq elining biyligin óz qolyna alghan.

Qytay jazbasy Kangiu patshalyghy jerine «ash dalada» kiretinin jәne olardyng kórshi Ýisýn memleketimen jau ekenin jazghan. Qytaydyng «ash dala» dep otyrghany Betpaqdala ekeni týsinikti. Al Resey iydeologiyasy tarihty búrmalau niyetimen «ash dalany» Myrzashól dep kórsetti. Dúrysynda, ol – Betpaqdala. Osy derekter Kangiu patshalyghy aimaghy Betpaqdaladan bastalyp, soltýstikke qaray sozylyp jatqanyn, Ýisýn imperiyasymen shekara sol zamanda Aral tenizine qúighan Shu ózeni men Balqash kóli boyy ekenin bayqatady. Qanly taypasynyng әli kýnge deyin eki jaqta – Jetisu aimaghy men Aral (Syrdariya) aimaghynda otyruy da sol zamandardan qalyptasqan degen oryndy.

Ýisýn patshalyghy b.d.d. I ghasyrdan bastap Qytay imperiyasy yqpalynda boldy, yaghni, Kangiu men Ýisýn memleketterining jaulyghy Húng (huni) imperiyasy men Qytay imperiyasy jaulyghymen tyghyz baylanysty. Húng imperiyasynda býlik shygharghan hanzadanyng Kangiu patshalyghyna baryp boy tasalaghanyn dәleldeytin qújattar bar. Húng imperiyasynyng ydyrauy biylikke talasqan hanzadalar býliginen bastaldy, qanghyýy taypasynyng býlikshi hanzadany qoldaghanyn shynýy әuleti keshirmegen tәrizdi. Óitkeni, Húng imperiyasy ydyrap, halqy I ghasyrda bizding dalagha kelgennen keyin Kangiu patshalyghy tarih sahnasynan kórinbey ketti.

Tarihy derekterde qún-huni halqynyng aldynghy legi Qúman (Kubani) ózenine jәne bir toby Zakavkaziege jetkeni kórsetiledi. Áriyne, Resey imperiyasy ghalymdary tarihty búrmalap, «Qúndar qazirgi qazaq dalasyna esh toqtamastan, Edil men Jayyq ózenderinen ary batysqa asyp ketken» dep tújyrymdady. Onysy esh aqylgha syimasa da, «biyleushilerdin» degenine baghynghanymyzdy jasyra almaymyz. Qúng halqynyng keybir rulary Edil ózeninen ary asyp ketse de, negizgi bóligi bizding dalada túraqtap qalghany, osyndaghy saq halqyna kelip qosylghany týsinikti. Osylaysha I ghasyrda tilderi tuys kóshpeli eki úly halyq qazirgi qazaq topyraghynda qosylyp, aralasyp, birtútas últqa ainalu prosesin bastan keshirdi.

Biylik qúndar da bolghandyqtan, Tarbaghataydan Edilge deyin sozylghan qazirgi qazaq dalasyn Ýisýn eli «Qúnzaq» dep atap ketken. Qúnzaq atauynda qazirgi qazaqy "jaq" sózi ornyna "zaq" qoldanylghan. Maghynasy – qúng jeri. Keyin ol dalanyng halqy da qúnzaq dep ataldy. Bizding dalada qosylghan qúndar men saqtar birneshe ghasyrlar bederinde qúnzaq degen birtútas halyq bolyp qalyptasty. Búl bizding dәuirding I ghasyry men V ghasyry arasynda oryn alghan. Al V ghasyr men VII ghasyr aralyghynda qúnzaq atauy qazaq bolyp ózgeriske úshyraghan. Yaghny «qúnzaq» atauyndaghy «ún» bóligi qoldanystan shyghyp, qysqaryp, әueli «Qzaq», sosyn ol birjola qazaq bolyp ornyqqan.

Al bizding dәuirding I ghasyrynda biylikten aiyrylghan qanghyýy taypasynyng negizgi bóligi keshegi jauy Ýisýn imperiyasymen til tabysyp, sonda yghysqany bayqalady (qazir qanghly-qanly taypasynyng ýlken bir bóligi Jetisu aimaghynda, al ekinshi ýlken toby Aralsk-Syrdariya aumaghynda otyr (4)). Demek, qanghly-qanly taypasy әueli Ýisýn imperiyasyna qosylghan, keyin V-VI ghasyrlardaghy Týrki qaghanaty zamanynda ýisýn elining kóshpeli bóligimen birge qazaq halqynyng qúramyna engen deu oryndy. Degenmen, Kangiu patshalyghyn biylegen qanghly-qanly ruynyng Sibirge jaqyn otyrghandary keyingi bashqyr últyn qalyptastyrugha qatysqany bayqalady. Bashqyr últynda olar «han-qanly» dep atalady, jergilikti ru-taypalar olardy Kangiu patshalyghyn biyleushiler retinde «han-qanly» dep atap ketken dep tújyrymdaugha bolady. Búl derek b.d.d. I ghasyrdaghy Kangiu patshalyghy qúramynda Sibir aimaghyda bolghanyn aighaqtaydy. Kangiu patshalyghynyng batysynda otyrghan qanghly-qanly adamdary Edilden ary asqan huni-húng rularymen birge Kavkazgha baryp, keyin noghay últyn qalyptastyrugha qatysqan degen jón.

Al olardyng ýisýn eline qosylghandary «qanghlar» (kangary) atauymen VI ghasyrda tarih sahnasynan qayta kórinedi. Olar sol zamandaghy Týrki qaghanatynyng әskery kýshining biri bolghan deu oryndy. Óitkeni, sol Týrki Ashina dinastiyasynyng bir tarmaghy bolatyn H-XI ghasyrlardaghy Týrki Seldjuk (asyljik) dinastiyasynyng әskery kýshining biri qanly taypasy bolghany tarihshylargha belgili.

Syrdariya aumaghynan baryp, HI ghasyrdyng basynda qazirgi Týrkimenstan aimaghynda bolghan ýz (oghyz) elin baghyndyryp, onda Islam dinin ornyqtyrghan Týrki Asyljikterding (Turky Seldjuk) negizgi kýshi qanly taypasy boldy. Osy derekter ejelgi Kangiu patshalyghyn biylegen top ta jәne VI-HI ghasyrlardaghy qanly taypasy basshylary da Asylúya dinastiyasynan ekenin aighaqtaydy. Jetisu qanlylaryndaghy aq qanly ruy ejelgi Kangiu patshalyghyn biylegen Asylúya tobynan qalyptasqan. Al Syrdariya qanlylaryndaghy týrke ruy VI-HI ghasyrlardaghy Tórgi Asyljik (Turky Seldjuk) taypasynan irge qalaghan degenimiz dúrys.

Osy Týrki qaghanaty zamanynda Qazaq últy óz atauymen qalyptasyp qoyghan bolatyn. Onyng dәleli retinde birneshe jaytty keltire keteyik:

  1. Sol 626 jyly Zakavkazieni jaulap, Tbilisy qalasyn basyp alghan Týrki qaghanaty әskeri «qazaq» dep atalghan halyq bolatyn. Olar sol aimaqqa ornyqty, VIII ghasyrda onda Qazaq qalasy bar ekenin arab jazbasy bayandaydy jәne arab tarihshysy Ibn әl Asirding jazbalarynda sol ghasyrdan bastap XIII ghasyrdaghy Shynghyshan zamanyndaghy oqighalarda Zakavkaziedegi qazaqtar jayly kóp derekter kezdesedi (5). Tipti, Shynghyshan әskeri men Zakavkaze qazaqtary bir halyq ekeni naqty derekpen kórsetiledi (6). Osy faktiler Shynghyshan әskerining eshqanday da manghol emesin, Zakavkaze qazaqtarynyng orystar aitatynday kabardinder emestigin aighaqtaydy. X ghasyrdaghy arab tarihshysy әri geografy Ál Masudy ol qazaqtardyng qay jerde otyrghanyn (7) jәne ózindik erekshelikterin kórsetip ketedi (songhy ret ol qazaqtar jayly Anna Antonovskayanyng «Velikiy Mouroviy» degen enbeginde XVI ghasyrdaghy gruziyn-qazaq soghystary barysynda bayandalady (8)).
  2. Sol VII ghasyrda Týrki qaghanaty әskeri bolyp qazirgi Indiya-Pakistan aumaghyna ornyqqandar arab-parsy derekterinde «halaj» atauymen kezdesedi jәne búl atau rulyq emes halyqtyq atau ekenine tarihshylar bir auyzdan kelisedi (9). Ibn әl Asir jazbasynda sol halaj eli XIII ghasyrdaghy Shynghyshan joryghyna baylanysty oqighalarda «turk» dep atalady jәne osy Ibn әl Asir bizding dalanyng halqynda «turk» dep kórsetedi. Al XIV ghasyrda ol eldi óz kózimen kórgen arab sayahatshysy Ibn Batuta da olardy «turk» dep jazady jәne osy Ibn Batuta bizdegi Altyn Orda halqyn da «turk» dep kórsetetini belgili.

Áriyne, Ibn әl Asir men Ibn Batuta jazbalarynyng arabsha týpnúsqasynda ol elding atauy anyq qalay ekenin bilmeymiz. Bizge ayany – ol jazbalardyng oryssha audarmasyndaghy «halaj» jәne «turk» ataulary. Men «turk» pen «kazak» ataulary arab әripterimen úqsas jazylatynyn aitqanmyn (قزك - qazak, ترك - turk). Sonymen qatar «halaj» jәne «hazaq» ataulary da arabshada óte úqsas (خذحhazah, خاجhalaj). Búl jayttar beker emes. Dúrysynda, «halaj» jәne «turk» degen ataular arab jazbalarynyng týpnúsqalarynda «qazaq» bolghany bayqalady. Olardy qazaq elinen beyhabar ózge el tarihshylary qatelesip, «halaj» dep kórsetken nemese Resey totalitarlyq sayasaty әdeyi búrmalap, «halaj», «turk» dep qalyptastyrghan.

  1. Sonymen qatar, arab-parsy jazbalary deregine sýiengen HIH ghasyrdaghy Resey tarihshysy Aleksey Levshin «Kirgiyz-kaysak ordasy jayly» degen ataqty enbeginde qazaq halqy key shyghys ghalymdarynyng aituynsha, Hristos tughangha deyin, yaghny bizding dәuirge deyin halyq bolyp qoyghanyn aitady. Alayda, ol búghan kýmәnmen qaraytynyn, biraq qazaq degen halyq ta, «Qazaq handyghy» atauy da tarihta alghash ret H ghasyrdaghy parsy Ferdausiyding «Rustam» degen belgili dastanynda jazylghanyn atap ótedi (10). Onyng ýstine, Irandaghy parsy jazbalaryn zerttegen osy zamanghy qazaq tarihshysy bir jazbasynda H ghasyrda qanly, dula taypalary qazaq halqynan ekeni kórsetilgenin jazady (búl әiel tarihshy qazir bar, aty-jóni esimde joq. Shamasy, onyng tapqanyn bireuler jórgeginde túnshyqtyruy da mýmkin).
  2. Qytay jazbalary sol VII ghasyrda Qashhardan ary jatqan eldi, yaghny bizding eldi «hasa» dep keltiredi. Qytaylar osy zamangha deyin qazaq halqyn «hasa» dep ataytyny mәlim. Áriyne, Resey óz әdetinshe qazaqtyng sol zamanda bar ekenin jasyru ýshin osy «hasa» atauyn «hazar» dep týsindirip keldi. Alayda, jogharydaghy derekter jәne qytaydyng bizdi osy kýnge deyin «hasa» dep atauy sol VII ghasyrdaghy elding «qazaq» degen halyq ekenin pash etedi.
  3. Qanly taypasy Turky Seldjuk-Týrki Asyljik dinastiyasynyng әskeri bolghanyn aittyq. Osy biyleushi dinastiyanyng negizin salghan – Mәlik Seldjuk әl-Ghazy degen biyleushi, onyng әkesining lauazymy – su-bashi, әkesi ólgen song Mәlik Seldjuk әl-Ghazy su-bashy bolghan. Osyndaghy Su-bashy dúrysynda – «Asýi-basy» degen qazaqy atau (Asylýy basshysy nemese As dinastiyasynyng basshysy degen maghynada). Ony da «su-bashi» etken arab әripti jazbalar yqpaly.

Osy jerde «әl-Ghazi» atauyna kónil bóleyik. Arabtyq «әl» sózi adamnyng qay ólkeden nemese qay elden ekenin kórsetedi. Mysaly, әl-Tarazi, әl-Horezmi, әl-Araby degen tarihy esimder. Áskeri qanly taypasy bolghan Mәlik Seldjuk әl-Ghazy qazaq dalasynan (Syrdariya manynan) shyghyp, Ýz (oghyz) elin (qazirgi Týrkimenstan aimaghyn) baghyndyrdy. Yaghni, ony ýz-oghyz eli qazaq elining adamy dep tanyghan jәne H ghasyrda qazaq óz atauymen anyq bar ekenin jogharyda kórsettik. Olay bolsa, Mәlik Seldjuk әl-Ghazy kósemning dúrys tolyq esimi – Mәlik Seldjuk әl-Ghazaq. Arabsha jazyluynda «ghazi» men «ghazaq» sózderi óte úqsas ekeni anyq fakt (غزقghazaq, غزى - ghaziy). Osy úqsastyqty paydalanghan Reseyding terisshil sayasaty yqpalymen Mәlik Seldjuk әl-ghazaq «Mәlik Seldjuk әl-Ghaziy» bolyp, ataqty qolbasshy Ertúghyrel әl-ghazaq «Ertúghyryl әl-ghazi» bolyp, onyng úly, Osman imperiyasynyng negizin salghan Ghazaq Osman «Ghaziy Osman» bolyp, XII ghasyrda Daghystanda payda bolghan músylman dindi Ghazaq-Qúmyq handyghy «Ghaziy-Qúmyq handyghy» bolyp әlemdik tariyhqa enip ketken.

Týrki Asyljik (Seldjuk) dinastiyasy XI ghasyrdyng sonynda biylikten shettetilip, onyng ornyn Horezmshah dinastiyasy basqany mәlim. Sol sebepten Týrki Asyljik (Seldjuk) dinastiyasy ózderine baghynyshty eldi ertip, qazirgi Týrkiya aimaghyna qonys audardy. Sol zamannan atalghan aimaqta «Qanly Bazary» degen ýlken sauda alany tarih sahynasyna shyqty. Búl atau Týrki Asyljik dinastiyasymen XI ghasyrda sonda baryp ornyqqan qazaqtyng qanly taypasymen tikeley baylanysty ekeni dausyz.

Zakavkaziedegi qazaq elining As-túghyr dinastiyasy biylegen bóligin  Shynghyshan әskeri quyp, qanghytyp jibergenin Ibn әl Asir jazbasy bayandaydy. Súltan Sýleymen bastaghan sol qazaq eli («qay eli» delinip ketken) qazirgi Týrkiya jerine, Týrki Asyljikter (Seldjuk) memleketi men Alepo knyazdigi aralyghyndaghy jerge ornalasady (qazirgi Kasak provinsiyasy). Sol jerde olar men Týrki Asyljik (Seldjuk) dinastiyasy arasynda qúdalyq baylanys ornaydy, Sýleymenning balasy Ertúghyrel seldjuk ruynyng qyzyna ýilenedi. Týrki Asyljik (Seldjuk) dinastiyasy qarapayym ru-taypalarmen qúdalyq baylanys jasamaghan. Demek, Ertúghyrel әl-ghazaq әuleti de aty aityp túrghanday ejelgi Asylúya dinastiyasynyng as-túghyr degen ruynan bolghan deu oryndy (osetinder qúramyndaghy digor últynyng alan elin biylegen ash-tigor (as-túghyr) ruynan ekenin jәne sol Zakavkaziede iron-osetin eli men qazaq eli kórshi otyrghanyn aldynghy maqalalardyng birinde aitqanbyz). Sol Ertúghyrelding balasy Qazaq Osman artynan ataqty Osman imperiyasyn ornatqany da anyq derek (týrik halqynyng bizding eldi «ata-júrtym» dep tanuy osynday tarihtyng olardyng jadynda emis-emis bolsada saqtaluynan deu oryndy).

Ertúghyryl elin Resey ghalymdarynyng yqpalymen «qay» dep tanu qalyptasyp ketti. Óitkeni, Týrkiya ghalymdarynyng ejelgi atajúrtyna kelip zertteu jýrgizuge mýmkindikteri bolmady. Olar tek sol atajúrtyn biylep otyrghan Resey imperiyasy ghalymdarynyng tújyrymdaryna sýiendi. Oghyz eli men qazirgi týrkimen eli qúramyndaghy ru-taypalar jalpy ózara birdey, tek oghyz eli qúramyndaghy qynyq pen qay taypalary týrkimender qúramynda mýlde joq (11, 12). Tarihy derekterge sýiengen ghalymdar seldjuk toby qynyq taypasynan dep tújyrymdaghan. Al qynyq pen qazaq sózderining arabsha jazyluynda úqsastyq kóp (قنقqynyqقذقqazaq). «Qay» men «qazaq» sózderi de tap solay, arabsha jazyluynda ózara úqsas (قاىqay, قذق - qazaq). Osy faktiler men eki elding atauy oghyz halqynyng tikeley úrpaghy týrkimender qúramynda bolmauy beker emestigin anartady. Anyghynda, «qynyq» pen «qay» dep búrmalanghan elding óz atauy qazaq ekeni dausyz. Oghan Mәlik Seljuk pen Ertúghyryldyng jәne onyng úly Osmannyng esimderindegi «әl-ghaziy», «ghazi» sózderi de kuә (jogharyda osy sózderding dúrysy «ghazaq» boluy әbden mýmkin ekenin aityp óttik).

Sonymen qatar Ertúghyryl eli әuelde ornalasqan jeri – Alepo qalasynan asa alys bolmaghan. Qazir de sol Siriyanyng Týrkiyamen shekaralas aimaghynda Kasak degen provinsiya bar. Búl derek te Ertúghyryl eli dúrysynda óz atauymen «qazaq» dep atalghanyn bayqatady.

Qazaqstandyq orys ghalymy Podushkin Kýltóbe qalashyghyn Kangiu eline tiyesili dep jarnamalap jatqany belgili. Anyghynda, Kýltóbe qalashyghynyng kangiu-qanly taypasyna esh qatysy joq. Ol qalashyq – tәjik-parsylardyng tau etegindegi mekeni. Qalashyqtan tabylghan kirpishtegi jazbalarda «kangiu» atauyna jәne kangiu taypasyna qatysty esh derek joqtyghyna qaramastan, Qazaqstan arheology Podushkin ol shahardy kangiulerdiki dep sendiruge tyrysady. Kangiu taypasy sak-skif halqyna jatatynyn ejelgi grek jazbalary dәleldeydi. Al Resey ghalymdary bolsa, saq-skifter – parsy tildiler dep búrmalap kelgen. Podushkinning pighyly – Kýltóbeden tabylghan parsylyq jazbalardy «kangiu taypasyna tiyesili» dep, orys iydeologtarynyng sol jalghan tújyrymyn sanamyzgha sinire týsu.

Anyghynda qazaqtyng qanly taypasy ejelgi saq elining bedeldi bóligi bolghan, sol elde Kangiu patshalyghyn ornatqan jәne Týrki Asyljik dinastiyasynyng negizgi әskery kýshi retinde Ýz-oghyz elinde, sosyn qazirgi Týrkiya aimaghynda óz atauyn qaldyrghan danqty taypanyng tikeley ózi bolyp tabylady.

QOSYMShALAR:

  1. «Nekotorye nazvaniya sakskih rodov vsyo je sohranilisi v istorii: massagety, day (dahiy, daki, dagiy), apasiaki, parny, kanghiy y dr. (Iz istoriy Sak-Skifov)
  2. «Sarstvo Kanguy, raspolojennoe v stepyah mejdu Aralskim morem y Balhashom, bylo y ostalosi soyznikom Hunnu. Ot Sredney Azii, ily Turana, ego otdelyaly besplodnaya stepi Betpakdala y pesky Muynkuma. Na vostoke on primykal k Tarbagatai, na zapade granichil s gosudarstvom Yanisay. «Istoriy starshey dinastiy Hani» soobshaet, chto Kanguy iymel pyati vassalinyh vladeniy. Na karte ony pomecheny na severnom beregu Chu. Rasstoyanie mejdu nimy privoditsya. Eto kak raz protyajenie Chu ot Chu-iliyskogo hrebta do Syr-Darii, okolo Kzyl-Ordy. (V «istoriy starshey dinastiy Hani» skazano, chto zapadnyy sosed Kanguya – Yanisay – ot nego nezavisiym, a v «istoriy mladshey dinastiy Hani» govoritsya, chto ot Kanguya zavisimy y Yanisay y ego severnyy sosed – Yani. Podchiynenie Kanguem etih sosedey proizoshlo uje v I-II vekah n.e. Volgu kanguysy ne perestupiliy.). Otnoshenie Kanguya s Kitaem byly vsegda vrajdebnymi. Kanguy silino vrajdovalo s Usuniu. Podchiynenie je Usuny Kitai vyzvalo voennoe vmeshatelistvo Kanguya, prichem razdelennaya y deoorganizovannaya Usuni ne mogla zashititsya. Odnako y kanguysy ne byly v sostoyaniy polnostiu razgromiti Usuni bez postoronney pomoshi, poetomu ony iskrenne jelaly uspeha hunnam. Usuny je, priznav protektorat Kitaya, polinastiu porvaly s hunnamiy». (Lev Gumiylev. Istoriya naroda hunnu).
  3. «Opasayasi Huhanie y kitaysev, Chjichjy prinyal predlojenie kanguyskogo vladetelya prisoedinitisya k nemu dlya sovmestnogo pohoda na Usuni. Kanguyskiy sari radushno prinyal Chjichji, dav emu v jeny svoi dochi, a sam jenilsya na dochery Chjichji. Neponyatno, pochemu 3 tysyachy hunnov mogly iymeti takoe znachenie dlya strany, kotoraya mogla vystaviti 120 tysyach vsadnikov. Po neizvestnym prichinam kanguyskiy sari chem-to oskorbil Chjichji, a tot ubil svoi jenu – kanguyskuy sarevnu y neskoliko sot znatnyh kanguysev, prichem tela poslednih byly izrublenny na melkie kusky y brosheny v rek. Kazalosi by, posle etogo kanguysy doljny byly stereti v poroshok malenikiy hunnskiy otryad, no etogo ne sluchilosi. Naoborot, kogda vskore pribylo kitayskoe posolistvo, ego prinyaly vrajdevno y daje oskorbiytelino». (Lev Gumiylev. Istoriya naroda hunnu).
  4. «Syrdariya qanlylary – Sary qanly (olar bes ata: Aqbota, Aqynqoja, Telqoja, Omyrtqa, Miyam) men Qara qanly (olar alty ata: Toghyzbay, Onbay, Toghanay, Baqa, Batyraq, Qara). Jetisu qanlylary da Sary-qanly (bes ata: Álseyit, Týrke, Shoqpar, Qúiysqansyz jәne Shanyshqyly) men Qara qanly (6 ata: Erezen, Qaspan, Enke, Tanta, Orazymbet, Baqa) bolyp taraydy. Jetisuda qonystanghan qanlynyng keybir rulyq toby Aq qanly jәne Qyzyl qanly dep te bólinedi. Songhylary Sary qanlynyng bir tarmaghy Telqoja atasynyng úrpaqtary bolyp esepteledi». (Qanly ruy).
  5. «V etom, 722 godu odna musulimanskaya armiya, vo glave kotoroy stoyal Sabit an-Naharany vstupila v stranu hazar so storony Arminii. Sobravshisi v ocheni bolishom kolichestve, hazary, kotorym na pomoshi prishly kipchakiy y drugie turkskie plemena, vstretily musuliman v meste, izvestnom pod nazvaniyem «Lug kamney….» (Ibn әl Asir – «Polnyy sbornik letopiysey»).
  6. «Alandar patshalyghynan keyin Kabh tauy men Rum tenizining (Vizantiya) aralyghynda tirshilik etetin kashak degen halyq bar. Olargha irgeles ózge ýlken taypa otyr jәne olarmen kashaktar arasyn ózen bólip túr. Búl ózen kólemi jaghynan Evfratqa úqsas jәne jaghasynda Trapezond túrghan Nitasqa qúyady. Olar IYr.m dep atalady jәne erekshe adamdardan qúralghan (iron-osetinder). Olar – pútqa tabynushylar». (Shirvan jәne әl Bab tarihy. Ál Masudiy)
  7. «Ony (tatary Chingishana) dvinulisi y poshly v stranu kurdjov. K nim prisoedinilsya turkskiy memluk po iymeny Akush, kotoryy sobral v bolishom chisle jiyteley teh gor y pustyni; on vstupil v perepisku s tataramiy, priglasiv ih prisoedinitisya k nemu, y te otvetily emu soglasiyem y sklonilisi k nemu iyz-za obshego ih proishojdeniya (rodstva)... «Togda tatary poslaly skazati kipchakam: “My s vamy odnogo roda (proishojdeniya), a ety alany vam ne rodnya, chtoby vy im pomogaliy.... Tatary je ostalisi v strane kipchakov, bogatoy bolishimy postbishamy zimoy y letom. V ney esti holodnye letom y teplye zimoy mesta, bogatye pastbishami. Eto — strana lesov na beregu morya… Ony (tatary) doshly do goroda Sudaka, goroda kipchakov, gde ih glavnye sily; on nahoditsya na beregu Hazarskogo morya y k nemu pristait korabli. Eto Hazarskoe more soedinyaetsya s zalivom Konstantinopolya...». (Ibn әl Asir – «Polnyy sbornik letopiysey»).
  8. «Kazahy podumayt – pomoshi Kahety okazaliy..., tvaladsy derjaly v strahe vragov sarya, osobenno kazahov,...  Ot poslov je Georgiy X potreboval zapisi na ostavlenie v Kartly 150 strelisov y dosylky ostalinyh po ugovoru dlya voyny protiv kazahov y drugih agaryan…, Kahety eshe ne opravilasi ot nabegov kazahov, ... v Sredney Kartly "gostili" kazahiy, y mnogie derevny ostalisi ne toliko bez hleba, no y bez jiliysh... Pervym uviydel kazahov zorkiy glaz Datuna, eshe vosemi dereveni razrushily kazahy za hanskogo syna... Opustoshiytelinyy nabeg kazahov y zapozdalaya pomoshi goriyskih drujin ne sposobstvovaly veselomu nastroenii.... V zamke dolgo vysmeivaly sumasshedshego aznaura, idushego voynoy s gorstiu drujinnikov na kazahskie eylagiy... Sryvaya pestrye polotnisha shatrov, kartliysy nabrasyvalisi na spyashiyh. Kazahov, pytavshihsya prorvatisya iz eylaga, prikanchivaly na meste taynye zasady tvaladsev. Saakadze rasporyadilsya snyati s arob kazashek y predostavil drujinnikam vybrati sebe devushek, detey otdelil dlya prodajiy v IYmereti. Pod smeh y jestokie shutky kazashkiy s dikimy voplyamy prijimaly k sebe plachushih detey. Staraya Ketevan golovu kazaha na pamyati vyprosila, okolo buyvolyatnika pribila... Vperedy zurnachey na dlinnom sheste kolyhalasi razukrashennaya petushinymy periyamy golova Mambet-hana, okrujennaya svitoy iz dvuhsot kazahskih golov na chernyh shestah. Zugza, plennisa v Metehskom zamke, byla po-prejnemu nepokornoy kazashkoy. ... Day konya y odejdu djigita! - strastno vykriknula Zugza. - Vernusi k bratu v eylag, snova hanshey budu! Luarsab voynoy poydet na kazahov. Mysli o tom, chtoby dati vozmojnosti saru uspokoitisya v bitve s kazahamiy, ... gotovitisya k voyne s kazahskim hanom..., nemedlenno napasti na Kazahii y ubiti Omar-hana. Cherez neskoliko dney gruzinskie voyska podoshly k Kazahiiy. ... Luarsab udivilsya, zametiv speshnye voennye prigotovleniya hana Kazahii. Kazahiy ordoy brosilisi na stroynye ryady gruzinskogo voyska. Luarsab stremiytelino rvalsya v glubi Kazahiiy... Volneniya v sarstve ne utihait: to obnaglevshie kazahiy ustraivait nabegi. Vse je drugogo vyhoda net, priydetsya idty voynoy na bogatuy Kazahii.... Na levom krai iransev han Kazahii, hrabryy Shabanda, uje razvernul legkuy stepnuy konnisu'.... S dikim gikaniem vyneslisi kazahy za svoim hanom na kray doliny.... Givy sunul svyashenniku neskoliko marchili, poprosiv priyvezty kazahskuy pletku...» (Anna Antonovskaya – «Velikiy Mouroviy).  
  9. «Halajdar eshqashan óz aldyna sayasy birlik retinde aitylmaghan, qashan da bóten biyleushilerding jaldamaly әskeri nemese gvardiyasy retinde atalady. Alghash ret jazba derekkózderinde b.z.d. VI ghasyrda aitylghan. Ghalym óz enbeginde H ghasyrda arab sayahatshysy Istahriyding enbeginen kelesi ýzindini keltiredi: "Hilijiy (Halaj dep te oqidy) erte kezde Gurdyng artyndaghy Ind pen Sedjestan arasyndaghy elge basyp kirgen týrki taypasy; búlar malshylar, syrt pishini, әdet-ghúryptary men kiyimderi (bir núsqasy "til") týrkishe". Onyng shygharmasyn basqa arab avtory Ibn-Haukal paydalanghan tәrizdi. Óitkeni, ol da solay jazghan: "Hilijy – erte kezde Ind pen Sedjestan arasyndaghy elge basyp kirgen týrki taypasy; olardyng syrt pishini týrkterge keledi, týrkilik kiyimderi men әdet-ghúryptaryn qoldanady jәne bәri týrki tilinde sóileydi». (Haladj).
  10. «Bolishaya chasti Russkih pisateley polagaet, chto pervye Kazaky proizoshly ily sostavilis u Tatar, chto u nih je rodilosi nazvanie Kazaki, y ot nih pereshlo ko vsemi otraslyam prejde byvshih y nyne sushestvuyshih kazakovi. Mysl sii, k kotoroy my uje privykli, oprovergait Vostochnye Istoriki, utverjdaya, chto Kazaky sostavlyaly samostoyatelinyy y nezavisimyy narod v otdelenneyshih vekah nashego letochisleniya. Nekotorye daje otnosyati ih sushestvovaniya dalee Rojdestvo Hristova. Dostoverno to, chto Firdevsi, ily Ferdusiy, jivshiy okolo 1020 goda, to esti: za dva stoletiya do poyavleniya Mongolo-Tatar na zapad, v Istoriy Rustema, upominaet o narode Kazakah y Hanah Kazakskiyh. Iz sochiyneniy ego y drevneyshih letopiysey Persidskiyh, kotorym on polizovalsya, izvestno, chto Kazaky drevniye, podobno pozdeyshiym, proslavily imya svoe grabejamy y nabegami, chto glavnoe orujie ih byly kopiya». (A.IY.Levshiyn. OB IYMENY KIRGIYZ-KAYSAKOV).
  11. «Kay, Bayat, Alka-evli, Kara-evli, Yazyr, Doger, Dodurga, Yaparly, Afshar, Kyzyk, Begdili, Karkyn, Bayandyr, Pechene, Chavuldur, Chepni, Salur, Eymur, Alayntlu, Yuregiyr, Igdiyr, Bugduz, Ive, Kynyk (osnovately Selidjukskoy imperiiy)». (Oguzy).
  12. «Alieli, arabachi, ata, bayaty, gokleny, ermeli, yomudy, karadashly (yazyry), kyrkyny, mahtumy, mukry, murchali, nohurly (nuhur), nuratinskie turkmeny, ogurdjali, olamy, sakary, salory (salyry), saryki, sayaty, tekinsy (teke), hazariy, hatab, hodja, chovdury (chaudor), sheyhi, emreli, ersariy, eskiy». (Turkmeny).

Bekjan Ádenúly

Abai.kz

 

 

14 pikir