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Alashorda 6735 29 pikir 14 Mamyr, 2020 saghat 04:24

Qazaq atauy "ghúnzaq" sózinen shyqqan...

Qytaydan jenilgen húng (huni) halqy I ghasyrda Qanly (kanigu) memleketi ornalasqan qazirgi qazaq dalasyna (saq dalasy) auyp keldi. Biylikten shettetilgen qanly taypasy Ýisýn imperiyasyna boy úsynyp, sonda yghysqan tәrizdi. Saq dalasyn iyemdengen húng halqy Ýisýn imperiyasy ornalasqan Orta Aziyany jaulap alugha qauqarsyz boldy. Sebebi – Ýisýn imperiyasy men Qytay imperiyasy odaqtasqan. Húng men saq halyqtary aralasyp, birtútas «hazaq» degen halyqqa ainala bastady. Biylik húndarda bolghandyqtan, ol aimaqty ýisýnder «húnzaq» dep atady (húng jaq, yaghny húng aimaghy degen maghynada). Keyin aimaq halqy da húnzaq dep atalyp ketti. Shamamen VI ghasyrda húnzaq qysqaryp, әueli hzaq, sosyn hazaq bolyp birjola ornyqty («ún» bóligi qoldanystan shyghyp qalghandyqtan, húnzaq әueli hzah, sosyn hazah bolyp ózgerip, ornyqty). Ataudyng osylay ózgerip, ornyghu deregi saq pen húng (huni) halyqtary qosyluymen qazaq últy payda bolghanyn aiqyn dәleldeydi.

Ýisýn imperiyasy men Qytay imperiyasy tyghyz odaqtas boldy, Ýisýn imperiyasyn qytay qyzdarynan tughandar biylegenin qytay jazba derekteri rastaydy. Sondyqtan bolar, b.z. II ghasyrda Ýisýn imperiyasynda budda dini órken jaydy, ol – Kushan Gerey degen patsha biylegen zaman. Osy patshanyng esimindegi «kerey» atauy onyng kerey taypasynan ekenin nemese senimdi әskery kýshi kerey taypasy bolghanyn bayqatady. Ejelgi derekterge sýiengen key ghalymdar kerey taypasy әuelde ýisýndik bolghan dep tújyrymdaydy.

Al III ghasyrdyng sonynda Qytay imperiyasy ekige ydyrap әlsiregeni, onyng soltýstik bóligin «qytay emester» biylegeni belgili. Soltýstik Qytaydy biylegen toba toby Ýisýn imperiyasyn biylegen dinastiyadan degen dúrys. Óitkeni, Qytay men Ýisýn imperiyalarynyng úzaq ghasyrlyq tyghyz odaqtastyghy jәne ýisýn biyleushileri men qytay biyligi arasyndaghy naghashy-jiyendik tuystyq baylanys ýisýndik dinastiya ókilderine Qytay imperiyasyn da biyleuge mýmkindik tudyrghan. Ýisýndik dinastiyanyng Qytay imperiyasy biyligine talasuy búl imperiyany ekige ydyratty dese de bolady. Qatty әlsiregen Ýisýn imperiyasynyng Orta Aziya aimaghyn IV ghasyrda jujandar tartyp aldy. Ýisýn imperiyasy Shynjan aimaghynda ghana óz biyligin saqtap qaldy jәne Soltýstik Qytaydyng biyligin óz qoldaryna aldy. Olardy qytay jazbasy toba taypasy dep kórsetedi jәne bir ruy «tufa» dep atalatynyn atap ótedi. «Toba» degen tabyn taypasy atauynyng qytaysha qysqaryp dybystaluy dep bilemiz. Bashqyr halqy qúramyna singen tabyndar «uysun» dep te atalghany mәlim. Osy derek tabyn taypasynyng әuelde Ýisýn imperiyasynda ómir sýrgenin aighaqtaydy.

Resey ghalymdary toba taypasy monghol tildiler dep búrmalaydy. Alayda, toba taypasynyng tufa ruynan týrkitildi tuva últy qalyptasqanyn eskersek, toba taypasy týrkitildi bolghanyn kóremiz. Yaghni, ol ýisýn-jýndilik taypalar tobynan bolghan. Tabyn taypasy qúramyndaghy qonyr ruy Ýisýn imperiyasyn biylegen hunimo (qonyrmyn) dinastiyasynan desek te qatelespeymiz. Osy derek te Soltýstik Qytaydy biylegen toba taypasy qazaqtyng tabyn taypasy ekenin dәleldeydi. Demek, arghyn, oshaqty, kerey, uaq jәne tabyn taypalary arghy teginde jýndi halqynan bolyp shyghady.

 

Bәidibek atauy qaydan payda boldy?

Qytay jazbalarynyng «Kushan patshalyghy boldy» degen aimaqty «ýisýnder jeri» dep kórsetui, sol aimaqta otyrghan ózbek halqynyng óz negizin uyshun dep tanuy jәne sol aimaqtaghy qazaq taypalarynyng jalpylay «ýisýnder» dep ataluy ertedegi imperiyanyng Kushan emes, Ýisýn dep atalghanyn aighaqtaydy. Áuelgi Ýisýn memleketi Shynjanda ornalasqan taulyq kishigirim knyazdik bolghany belgili, onyng halqy oshaq (ngechji) taypasy boldy. Keyin ol knyazdikke Orta Aziya qosylyp imperiyagha ainalghanda, atau Ýisýn bolyp qaldy. Alayda, Ýisýn imperiyasy halqy qúramynda jýndilik taypalarmen qatar jergilikti saq-skiftikter de bolghan. Keyin jujandar zamanynda olargha shapyrashty, al týrki ashinalar zamanynda ysty men dulat taypalary baryp qosyldy. Ejelgi grektik, rimdik jәne qytaylyq jazbalar alban, suan (syban), qanly, sirgeli taypalarynyng saq-skif halqynan ekenin, al ysty, shapyrashty, dulat taypalarynyng húng (huni) halqynan ekenin kórsetedi. Olar otyrghan nemese baryp qonystanghan aimaqtar «Ýisýn jeri» dep tanylghandyqtan, olardyng ortaq ataulary «ýisýnder» bolyp ornyqty.

Ýisýn imperiyasyn biylegen honyr (hunimo) toby jýndilik «jeti taypalyq Baydy odaghyna» sýiengen siyaqty. Oshaqty taypasynda bayly ruynyng joly ýlken sanaluy jәne ýisýndik taypalardyng óz shejiresin Baydy-bekten taratuy sonday sebepterden qalyptasqan. Yaghni, ýisýnderding arghy tegi sanalatyn «Baydibek» atauy jeke adamdy emes, ol Ýisýn imperiyasy biyligine jaqyn bolghan Baydy taypalyq odaghyn kórsetedi. Ýisýn imperiyasy 500 jyl biylegen aimaq keyin «Ýisýn jeri» bolyp ketkendikten, onda otyrghan taypalar da (ýsh týrli halyq bolghanyna qaramastan) jalpylay «ýisýnder» dep atalghan. Ózgeler «ýisýnder» dep ataghandyqtan, ol taypalar da keyingi shejire jazu zamanynda ortaq tekterin izdegen. Olardyng emis-emis este qalghan anyzdar jetegimen Baydy taypalyq odaghyn «Baydybek» deu arqyly ortaq atalaryn tapqanday bolghanyn bayqaymyz. Yaghni, Baydy atauly jeti taypa odaghy jayly anyz-әngimeler «ýisýndik taypalar Baydibek babadan taraydy» degen týsinikti qalyptastyrady.

Al qonyr ruy oshaqty taypasynda ghana emes, Almaty oblysyndaghy ystylar qúramynda da, Shymkent, Jambyl aimaghyndaghy ystynyng tilik ruy men dulattyng siqym ruy qúramynda da (qonyrdyng shuyldaghy) jәne Qyzylorda aimaghyndaghy tabyndar qúramynda da boluy Ýisýn imperiyasyn biylegen hunimo tobynyng atauy dúrysynda qonyr ekenine dәlel (biyleushi dinastiya bolghandyqtan imperiyanyng barlyq aimaghynda olardyng ókilderi boldy, keyin olar óz aimaghyndaghy taypalar qúramyna sindi). Al shapyrashtylar mekenindegi Ýshqonyr atauy, Ýsharal qalasy manyndaghy Qonyr mekeni, Qyzylorda aimaghyndaghy Bayqonyr men Sarysudaghy Tórqonyr degen jerler Ýisýn imperiyasy aimaghynyng territoriyasyn pash etedi. Tipti, Semey aimaghyndaghy Qonyr әulie ýngiri keyingi músylmandyq zamanda sol aimaqqa din taratqan qonyr dinastiyasy úrpaghymen baylanysty deuge әbden bolady.

Jalpy oshaqty taypasynyng Jambyl, Shymkent, Tashkent aimaqtaryndaghy kóptegen eldi mekenderde shashyrap ornalasqany jәne bir tobynyng Bayqonyrgha jaqyn Aralisk qalasy manynda otyrghany Ýisýn imperiyasy zamanynan bastau alady.

 

Ýisýn imperiyasynyng astanasy qayda bolghan?

Qytay jazbalary Ýisýn imperiyasynyng astanasy Talas ózeni jaghasynda bolghanyn kórsetedi jәne onyng qytaysha jazbadaghy atauy kirilisada Suyyab bolyp tariyhqa endi. Resey ghalymdary yqpalymen atalghan qala qazirgi Qyrghyz aimaghynda bolghan, ol keyin Ystyqkól aghysymen joyylghan degen tújyrym ornyqty. Kóp aimaghy dalaly bolyp keletin imperiya astanasynyng tauly aimaqqa jaqyn ornalasuy aqylgha syimaydy. Óitkeni, tau jotalarynyng jaqyndyghy jaudyng oqystan shabuyl jasauyna keng mýmkindik beretini dausyz. Hazar qaghanaty astanasy men keyingi Altyn Ordanyng kishi ordasy bolghan Sarayshyq qalasynyng ashyq dalaly jerdegi ózen manynda ornalasuy jәne olardyng ainala ózenmen qorshaluy Euraziya dalasyn biylegenderding memleket astanasyn qay jerde qalay salghanyn jәne olardy qanday әdispen qorghaghanyn pash etedi. Sol zamandardan memleket astanasy etip eki qalany tanyghanyn, olardyng biri negizgi astana, al ekinshisi kishi astana qyzmetin atqarghanyn kóremiz.

Ol kezenderde Aral tenizine baryp qúighan Shu men Talas ózenderi Ýisýn imperiyasy men Qanly (kanigu) memleketining shekarasy bolghanyn Lev Gumiylev qytay derekterimen anyq jazady. Qytay jazbalary Ýisýn imperiyasy shyghys, ortalyq jәne batys degen ýsh aimaqtan túratynyn bayandaydy. Ýsharal auyly ornalasqan jer Ýisýn imperiyasynyng batys aimaghynyng ortalyghy, al Ýsharal qalasy ornalasqan jer Ýisýn imperiyasynyng shyghys aimaghynyng ortalyghy boluy mýmkin ekenin geografiyalyq kartadan bayqau onay. Ile ózenine jaqyn aimaqtaghy Tentek ózeni jaghasynda Ýsharal qalasy ornalassa, Talas ózeni jaghasynda Ýsharal auyly ornalasqan. Ýisýn memleketin biylegen dinastiya ózderin «qonyrmyz» (hunimo) dep ataghan. Oshaqty taypasynyng tórt ruynyng biri – qonyr jәne Ýsharal qalasyna jaqyn jerde Qonyr dep atalatyn auyl bar.

Ýisýn imperiyasyn ornatqan – yuechjiyler, onyng dúrys atauy oshaq ekenin aittyq. Oshaqty taypasynyng ókilderi qayda otyrsa da ata qonysy retinde Ýsharal auyly ornalasqan aimaqty ataytyny da beker emes (әitpese, oshaqtylar mekendeytin auyldar Shymkent pen Taraz aimaqtarynda az emes). Jogharyda Atbaylar tóbesi dúrysynda Ata Baysary beyiti boluy mýmkin ekenin aittyq, sol jerden ary qúmgha jaqyn Aqkesene men Kókkesene degen kishigirim qorghandar bolghan (bireui ghana saqtalghan). Olardy Resey sayasatymen «qalmaqtardyng qarauyl qaraytyn bekinisteri» degen tújyrym jasaldy. Alayda, Aqkesene, Kókkesene ertedegi biyleushilerding qabirine ornatylghan keseneler (movzoley) boluy mýmkin. Ondaghy biyik salynghan qarauylhana memleket shekarasyn kýzetuge arnalghanyn aighaqtaydy. Sol biyikten qarasanyz, qúm jiyegin jaghalay qoldan qazylghan keremet ózen arnalaryn kóresiz. Olardyng qoldan salynghany anyq bayqalady jәne memleket shekarasyn qúm jaqtan kelui mýmkin jaudan qorghau ýshin qazylghan deuge bolady (ony «Arna» dep ataydy halyq).

Oshaqtylar ol arnalardyng qoldan qazylghanyn úmytpaghan, alayda qay zamandardan ekenin eshkim bilmeydi. Ýsharal auyly Talas ózeni jaghasynda ornalasqan, ony Talas ózeni men Asa ózenderi arnalary ýsh qúrlyqqa bólip jatyr. Shamasy, Ýsharal atauyna osy sebep bolsa kerek. Barsha kórshi auyldar keyingi kolhozdastyru kezinde payda boldy. Al ózen jaghalay ornalasqan Ýsharal erteden bar auyl. Sol ózen jaghasynyng arghy jaghasy tegis, al auyl jaqtaghy jaghasynda tau-tau bolghan qúm jotalary bar. Osy qúm jotalarda jabayy jemisi bar ósimdikter ósedi, nege ózenning qarsy jaghasynda múnday qúm jotalary joqtyghy týsiniksiz. Mýmkin osy qúm jotalarynyng astynda Ýisýn imperiyasy astanasynyng qaldyqtary jatqan shyghar. Qúm jota eski qiraghan ýiindiler yqpalymen payda bolady ghoy.

Ýsharal auylynda basqa auyldarda joq ejelgi ýlken meshit bar, ol meshit kýidirilgen kirpishten salynghan jәne arhiytekturasy XI ghasyrgha tiyesili tәrizdi. Ony XIX ghasyrda hojalar salghan deydi keybireuler. Alayda, múnarasynyng joqtyghy jәne kýmbezderining ornalasuy XI ghasyr arhiytekturasyna keletini onyng negizi erteden bolghanyn bayqatady. Mysaly, XI ghasyr arhiytekturasyna say túrghyzylghan Qarahan baba kesenesi men Ýsharal meshiti arhiytekturasy úqsas. Osynyng ózi Ýsharal meshiti sonau erte zamannan boluy mýmkin ekenin kórsetedi. Áriyne, keyin oshaqty atqaminerleri qiraugha jaqyn qalghan meshitti óz qarajattaryna hojalardyng kómegimen qayta jóndeui mýmkin. Osy esinde emis-emis qalghan adamdardyng әngimesimen «Ýsharal meshiti XIX ghasyrda salynghan» degen úghym qalghan shyghar.

Qyzylorda aimaghynda otyrghan oshaqtylar ol jerge әuelde Ýisýn imperiyasy zamanynda baruy da mýmkin jәne olar onda Talas pen Shu ózenderin jaghalay jetken deu oryndy. Oshaqtylar Qyzylorda qalasynan ary jatqan ónirde ornalasqan. Eger olar Taraz ben Shymkent qalalary boyymen barsa Qyzylordagha deyingi aimaqta otyrar edi. Keyin jonghar shapqynshylyghynda oshaqty taypasynyng ýshten ekisi qyrylghany belgili, aman qalghandary sol Aral tenizi aimaghyna aua kóshti. Eger olar Taraz ben Shymkent aimaghyna ausa, ondaghy dulattar túraqtaytyn oryn tauyp berer edi. Demek, oshaqtylar Aral tenizi jaqqa ózderine belgili eski joldary – Talas pen Shu ózenderining silemderimen jetkeni anyq.

 

Qazaq dalasyna Islam dinin jetkizgen alghashqy arabtar

Islam dini «Ejelgi ýisýn aimaghyna» VIII ghasyrdyng birinshi jartysynda ornyghyp ýlgerdi. Islam dini aq pen qara taypalardyng qúdalasyp, aralasuyna yqpal etti. Qonyr ruy da, shapyrashty men ysty taypalary da qara taypalarmen qúdalasyp, aralasyp, qarapayym taypalardyng birine ainaldy.  Islam dinin qabyldaghan qazaq taypalary týgeldey óz tanbalaryn jansyz beynelerge auystyrugha mәjbýr boldy. Óitkeni, Islam dinining talaby solay. Osy sebepten oshaq men shapyrash taypalary tazqara beyneli tanbalaryn túmar beynesine auystyrdy.

Sol zamanda Islam dinin әkelgen arabtar qazaq halqynan qyz alyp, derbes ru men taypalardy qalyptastyrdy. Kishi jýzdegi ramadan taypasy әuelde Tashkent manynda mekendegeni belgili. Taypa tanbasy dulattarmen birdey boluy onyng dulat taypasy qyzdaryn alghan arabtardan qalyptasqanyn bayqatady. Dulat taypasyndaghy nókis ruy da óz tegin arabtardan taratady. Olardyng әuelgi orny Qaraqalpaqstandaghy Nókis qalasy ekeni anyq. Yaghni, olar – sol mangha Islam dinin jetkizen arabtardyng úrpaqtary.

Islam dinin jetkizgen arabtarmen oshaqty taypasynyng da aralasuy zandylyq, tasjýrekting seyit ruy sol arabtardan qalyptasuy mýmki. Seyit – taza arabtyq atau jәne Seyit dep payghambar (s.gh.s.) ruynan taraghandardy ataydy (hoshimidter). Demek, Islam dinin bizge jetkizgen arabtardy bastaghan Seyit toby oshaqty taypasynan qyz alysyp, sinisken degen jón. Qonyr ruyna «momyn» degen janama atau bergen osy arabtyq seyit toby boluy mýmkin. Arabsha «mýmin» sózi «dindar músylman» degen maghynada qoldanylady. Qonyr ruynda músylmanshylyq myqty bolghandyqtan, olardy «mýmin qonyr» dep ataghanyn, osy atau keyin qazaqsha «momyn qonyr» dep ózgergenin bayqaymyz.

Arghy teginde Payghambarymyzgha (s.gh.s.) tuys hojalar bizge XI ghasyrda keldi. Al Islam dini bizge olardan 400 jyl búryn jetip qoyghan bolatyn. Resey imperiyasynyng ghalymdary: «Sol zamanda kelgen arabtar qaytadan elderine ketken bolar» degen boljam aitady. Al key qazaq ghalymdary osy boljamdy tújyrym retinde qabyldap ketti. Ol zamandaghy jerjahangha Islam dinin taratqan músylman arabtar barghan jerlerinde din taratyp ornyghyp qalghan. Sondyqtan bizge kelgen arabtar da qazaq halqy qúramyna singeni anyq. Seyit, ramadan jәne nókis – taza arabtyq ataular, sol sebepten osy ru-taypalardy sol arabtardan qalyptasqan desek, qatelespeymiz. Demek, seyit ruy arghy teginde ardaqty Payghambarymyzgha (s.gh.s.) tuys bolyp shyghuy kәdik. Múny qazaq ghalymdary gendik zertteuler arqyly anyqtauy kerek. Biz tarihy derekter negizinde mýmkin jayttardy bayandaymyz, anyghy Allagha ayan.

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