Dýisenbi, 18 Qantar 2021
Alashorda 4046 2 pikir 4 Sәuir, 2020 saghat 12:40

«Sen ghana halyqtyng senimine ie boldyn»

Barlybek Syrtanov: tórt qújattyng taghylymy

HIH ghasyrdyng ayaghynda Sankt-Peterburg uniyversiytetinde oqyghan qazaq ziyalarynyng biri, biregeyi – belgili memleket jәne qogham qayratkeri Barlybek Syrtanov turaly jariyalanghan «Barlybek Syrtanov» atty zertteu júmysymyzda sóz etken bolatynbyz. Atalghan uniyversiytetting arhiv qorynan tabylghan naqtyly qújattar negizinde jazylghan enbek keyin «Alash ardaqtylary: Sankt-Peterburg izderi» atty kitabyma endi (Almaty: «Taymas» baspasy, 2013 j.,160-185 bb.). Kitapqa Barlybek Syrtanov dayyndaghan «Qazaq elining Ustavy» (ýzindi) qosymsha retinde berildi. Búl maqalagha kezinde osy salamen túraqty shúghyldanyp jýrgen zertteushi ghalymdar, týrli mamandyq iyeleri yqylas tanytyp, iygi tilekterin bildirdi. Zertteu júmysyn әli de jalghastyru kerek ekenin algha tartty. Osy talap-tilekti este saqtay otyryp, taghy da biraz tyng qújattar tapqan edik. Býgin solardy oqyrman nazaryna úsynbaqpyz.

B.Syrtanov 1866 jyly Jetisu oblysy Qapal uezi Arasan bolysynda dýniyege kelgen. Ákesi auyl-aymaqqa belgili, bedeldi, batyl, aqyl-parasaty mol, әdil adam bolghan.

Sóz basynda Barlybekting tegine qatysty mәselening basyn ashyp alghan jón sekildi. Óz qolymen toltyrylghan ta­riy­hy qújattarda familiyasy «Syrtanov» dep jazylghan, al әkesine qatysty qújattarda «Syrttan» dep berilgen. Biz de osy kýiinde qaldyrudy, qoldanudy layyq kórdik jәne búl aiyrmashylyqty aitarlyqtay qate deuding reti joq dep bilemiz.

Bala Barlybekting alghash әlip tanyp, ilim-bilimge bet búruyna Qapal qalasynda 1874 jyly qazaq balalary ýshin ashylghan әzirlik pansiony mekemesining ózindik yqpaly bolady. Almaty qalasyndaghy Ortalyq Memlekettik múraghatta osy pansion turaly birqatar qújattar saqtalghan. Sonyng biri Jetisu oblysynyng joghary mәrtebeli úlyqtarynyng atyna 1875 jyly (№941, 21 nauryz) jәne 1876 jyly (№189, 19 qantar) jazylghan raport (Almaty, OMM 44-qor, 1-tizbe, 37226-qatar). Onda qazaq balalary ýshin ashylghan pansion shyn mәninde 1874 jylghy 8 qarashadan júmys isteytindigi jәne shәkirtterge qazaq jәne orys tilderin jetik bile­tin Janghozy Toghjanovtyn, әieli ekeui, sabaq beretindigi jazylghan.

Jogharyda aitylghan 1875 jylghy raport­ta mynaday derekter bar: «V oktyabre 1874 g. kirgiz Arasanskoy volosty Syrttan Bokin priy­vel v uezdnoe upravlenie dvuh detey 11-ty y 9-ty letnih malichikov y prosil prinyati ih v uchiy­liyshe s tem usloviyem, chtoby ot nego ne trebovaly ny na uchebu, ny na ih soderjaniye, a takje, chtoby pry nih nahodilasi ih mati, ego starshaya jena.

Dety byly prinyaty y rozmesheny v yurtu, dannoy Syrttanom na pervoe vremya poka neizuch­ten sredstva dlya nayma drugoy yurty».

Arasan bolysynyng qazaghy Syrttan Bokinning mektepke әkep tapsyrghan eki úlynyng biri – Barlybek te, ekinshisi onyng aghasy – Túrlybek edi. Jogharyda keltirilgen múraghat qújatynda 1868 jylgha deyin qazaqtar balalaryn oqugha beruge qarsy bolyp, sodan әr bolysty bir baladan oqugha jiberuge mindettegendigi, solay bolsa da bolystar mindetten qútylu amalymen mektepke alghashqyda panasyz, ata-anasyz, aghayyn-tuystary syrt bergen әljuaz, auru-syrqauly bozbalalardy jóneltkendigi aitylady.

Derekterge qaraghanda, 1875 jyldyng nauryz aiyna deyin atalmysh mektepte Syrttannyng eki úly ghana bilim alghan jәne olardyng orys tilinde bir auyz sóz bilmeui kóp qiyndyqtar tughyzghan synayly. Ol turaly raportta mynaday joldar bar:

«Balalar orys tilinde birde-bir sóz bilmeytin edi, al uchiliyshening oqu әdistemesi boyynsha sabaq týsindiru týrinde ótkiziletindikten qazaq balalary­na múnyng paydasy bolmady. Olardyng oqugha degen yntasy túnshyqpas ýshin, sonymen qatar uchiliy­she­degi leksiyalardy tyndaugha ýirenui ýshin men olargha qarapayym dauys yrghaghy jәne qolmen kórsetu әdisi boyynsha jazudy jәne oqudy, mysa­ly bas, qol, ayaq degen siyaqty sózderdi ýiretetin, sonymen qatar san sanaugha jattyqtyratyn tegin múghalima tauyp berdim. Syrttannyng balalary qabiletti әri yjdaghatty bolyp shyqty. Múghalima ótkizetin sabaq ayaqtalghan son, olar uezdik basqar­magha keledi jәne múnda qyzmettegi óz isterimen ainalysatyn qazaqtardyng qatysuymen balalar kýndelikti jinaqtaghan tanym-bilimderinen emtiy­han tapsyratyn edi».

Jogharyda keltirilgen esep-raporttyng sonynda mynaday joldar kezdesedi: «1874 goda v zdaniy Kapaliskogo uchilisha s 4 do 6 chasov po polu dny otkryt klass dva kazahskih detey pod ruko­vod­stvom uchiytelem Buratova. K 1 chislu yanvariya nastoyachego goda uchashihsya bylo uje 16.

Moego starshego pomoshnika Shtabsi kapitana Izrazsova 1876 g.»

Sóitip, Barlybek Qapal qalasyndaghy pansionnan sauat ashqan son, 10 jasynda Vernyy qalasyndaghy er balalar gimnaziyasyna oqugha týsedi. Sonday-aq Barlybekpen birge Túrlybek te Ver­nyy qalasynda bilim alghan. Barlybek 1886 jyly Vernyy qalasyndaghy er balalar gimnaziyasyndaghy oquyn ýzdik ayaqtap shyghady. Túrmystyq qiyndyqtar men әleumettik problemalargha qaramastan, jas shәkirt bilimin әri qaray jetildirudi óz aldyna maqsat etip qoyady. Ári gimnaziya diyrektory D.Novak onyng erekshe qarym-qabileti men talap-tilegin bayqaydy da, Jetisu oblysynyng әskery gubernatorynyng atyna B.Syrtanovty Sankt-Peterburg uniyversiytetine oqugha jiberu ýshin qarajat bólu jóninde qatynas hat jazady.

Sonyng nәtiyjesinde 1886 jyly Barlybek Sankt-Peterburg uniyversiytetining shyghystanu fakulitetine oqugha týsedi. Onymen birge Qazaqstannyng basqa da oblystarynan kelgen jas jigitter oqidy. Olardyng arasynda: Baqytjan Qarataev, Jansha (Jihansha) Seydaliyn, Mәmbetaly Serdaliyn, Abdolla Temirov, t.b. boldy. B.Syrtanov studenttik jyldary sondaghy oqu oryndarynda oqyp jýrgen esti-basty, últ bolashaghyna jany alang jastarmen birigip, «Jerlester» atty úiymdy qúrugha belsene at salysty. Úiymnyng jinalystarynda qazaq jastary qaranghylyq pen bodandyq búghauynan shygha almay otyrghan halqymyzdyng ómir-túrmysyndaghy kóptegen kýlbilteli, qordaly mәselelerdi kóterip, talqygha salatyn bolghan. Ghylymnyng týrli salalarynda bilim alghan olar qazaq jerining naqtyly bostandyghy jәne ony órkeniyet jolymen damytudaghy ózderining atqarar róli turaly armandaytyn. Sonymen qatar jas jigitter orys halqynyng ozyq oily túlghalary N. Chernyshevskiy, V. Belinskiy, N. Dobrolubov jәne A. Gersenning shygharmashylyghy jәne qayratkerlik órisimen jaqyn tanysady.

Sankt-Peterburg uniyversiytetining múraghatynda B.Syrtanovtyng osy oqu ornynda qanday ýlgerimmen bilim alghanyn aighaqtaytyn attestat pen bitirgendigi jónindegi kuәlik saqtalghan. Attestatta B.Syrtanovtyng tәrtibi óte jaqsy, sabaqqa qatysy jәne dayyndyghy, sonday-aq jazba júmystardy oryndauy óte jaqsy, barlyq pәnderge degen qyzushylyghy, ynta-yqylasy óte jaqsy ekeni aishyqtalghan. Pәnder boyynsha mynaday ýlgerim kórsetken:

Qúday zany boyynsha –

Orys tili men jazudan – 4 (jaqsy)

Logikadan – 4 (jaqsy)

Latyn tilinen – 4 (jaqsy)

Grek tilinen – oqudan bosatylghan

Matematikadan – 5 (óte jaqsy)

Fizika. Matematikalyq jaghrapiyadan – 5 (óte jaqsy)

Qysqasha tabighattanudan – 4 (jaqsy)

Tarihtan –5 (óte jaqsy)

Geografiyadan – 5 (jaqsy)

Nemis tilinen – 5 (jaqsy)

Kórip otyrghanymyzday, student B.Syrtanov negizgi pәnderdi jaqsy ýlgerimmen oqyghan.

Al kuәlikte B.Syrtanovtyng Imperatorlyq Sankt-Peterburg uniyversiytetine 1886 jyldyng tamyzynda qabyldanyp, Shyghys tilderi fakulitetining Arab-Parsy-Týrik-Tatar tilderi bólimine tirkelgeni jazylghan. Onda ol mynaday kurstardy: Arab tili, Arab әdebiyetining tarihy, Parsy tili, Parsy әdebiyetining tarihy, Týrik-Tatar tili, Týrik taypalarynyng tarihy, Osman tili, Osman tilining tarihy, orys memlekettik qúqyghy tarihy, halyqaralyq qúqyq, polisiya qúqyghy, qarjy qúqyghy, t.b. tyndaghan.

B.Syrtanovtyng Sankt-Peterburg uniyversiytetindegi studenttik kezenine qatysty myna bir derekti de keltire ketsek pe deymiz. Ataqty Sәduaqas Shormanovtyng Griy­goriy Potaninge jazghan bir hatynda: “Bizding qazaq jastarynan joghary oqu oryndarynda 30 bala oqidy. Onyng ishinde Barlybek Syrtanov degen bala Peterburgte jýr. Kózinizding qyryn salsanyz”, – degen joldar bar. 1887 jyly jazylghan osy hat bayanauyldyq ardaqty aghanyng jetisulyq jas jetkinshekke qalay qamqorlyqpen qara­ghanyn kórsetedi.

1887 jyly A.Uliyanov pen bir top revolusionerlerding II Aleksandargha jasaghan qastandyghy B.Syrtanovtyng әleumettik-sayasy kózqarasynyng qalyptasuyna ýlken yqpal etedi. Jalpy alghanda, Peterburg uniyversiytetining demokratiyalyq, revolusiyalyq jәne ghylymy dәstýrleri onyng qoghamdyq-sayasy tanym-týsinigining ósuine alghyshart bolyp, ómirine óshpes órnegin qaldyrdy.

1890 jyly B.Syrtanov Sank-Peterburg uniyversiytetining shyghystanu fakulitetin oidaghyday ayaqtap, arab-parys jәne týrik-tatar tilderi mamandyqtary boyynsha ýzdik diplom alyp shyghady. Ol Jetisu ónirinen shyghyp, jogharghy, uniyversiytettik bilim alghan alghashqy qazaqtardyng biri bolyp tabylady.

1903-1907 jyldary B.Syrtanov Resey men Qytay shekarasynyng mejesin tekseru isine atsalysty. Patsha ókimetining orys sharualarynyng Jetisu ónirine qonys audaryp, jergilikti halyqtyng mal baghugha, egin eguge jaramdy jerlerin tartyp aluyna narazylyq tanytty. Óz zamanynyng ozyq oily, aldynghy qatarly azamaty retinde P.A. Stolypinning reaksiyashyl sayasatyna qarsy shyqty. «Ayqap» jurnalynda qazaq halqynyng әleumettik-sayasy mәselelerine qatysty maqalalar jariyalady.

Jalpyqazaq siyezinde talqygha týsuge tiyis negizgi mәseleler retinde B.Syrtanov mynalardy úsyndy: 1) qazaq halqyna bir kezderi odan zorlyqpen tartyp alynghan jerlerdi qaytaru; 2) Memlekettik Dumagha qazaq halqynyng ókilderin saylau; 3) jergilikti jerlerde qajettilikke oray diny mýftiyler saylau; 4) jergilikti túrghyndardyng qúqyqtaryn Resey imperiyasy orystarynyng qúqyqtarymen tenestiru. Búl problemalar sol uaqyttaghy asa manyzdy mәseleler bolatyn.

B. Syrtanov Jetisu ólkesinde jerdi kelim­sekterding talan-tarajgha salyp jatqan qimyl-әreket­terin toqtatu ýshin 1910 jyly qazan aiynyng 21 júldyzynda Úzynaghashta oblys qazaqtaryn jinap, arnayy kenes ótkizedi. Onda ózi bayandama jasap, qazaq halqynyng jer tarlyghyn kórip otyrghan zardaptaryn batyl týrde ortagha salady. Mine, bizding qolymyzgha týsken songhy qújattar osy Úzynaghash jinalysynyng jay-japsaryn, onda algha tartylghan talaptardyng joghary túrghan patsha ýkimetine qalay әser etkenin bayan etedi.

391-qor, №4 tizbe, 929-iste saqtalghan tórt qatynas hattyng birinshisi 1911 jyldyng 24 nauryzynda joldanghan. Ishki ister ministrligining joghary mәrtebeli A.V.Krivosheynning atyna jazylghan hatyn barynsha tolyq keltirip otyrmyz:

«Mәrtebeli taqsyr Aleksandr Vasilievich!

Ishki ister ministrliginde Jetisu oblysyn mekendeytin qyrghyz (qazaq – N.O.) túrghyndarynyng songhy 6 ay ishindegi kónil auany turaly mәlimetter bar. Sol mәlimetterge sәikes, Jetisu ónirine orys elinen qonys audarushylardy ornalastyru jәne barlyq týzemdik túrghyndardy әskery qyzmetke alu jónindegi sybystar qyrghyzdardy qatty alandatyp otyr, bolys siyezderinde (mәslihattarda) qyzu pikirtalas tughyzdy, songhy siyezde qalyptasqan ahualdy talqylau ýshin jalpy oblystyq siyezd shaqyru jәne tiyisti is-sharalar qabyldau turaly oy aityldy. Belgilengen siyezd osy jyldyng 21 qazanynda Úzynaghash eldi mekeninde bolyp ótti. Oghan qatysqan bolys ókilderi mynaday qauly qabyldady:

1) qazaqtardy jerge ornalastyrugha jaghday jasalsyn jәne oblysqa odan әri qonys audarushylardy ornalastyrudy toqtatylsyn; 2) uniyversiytet bitirgen Barlybek Syrtanovqa osy ýshin deputasiya úiymdastyru mindettelsin; 3) osy sharagha ketetin shyghyndardy óteu ýshin  bolystar aqshalay jarna tólesin jәne meshitterde aqsha jinau jýrgizilsin; 4) osy deputasiya Búqar әmirine baryp, mәrtebeli IMPERATORDYNG qabyldauyna jazylugha yqpal etudi súrasyn.

Syrtanov siyezding ókilettigin qabyldap alghan song Vernyy qalasyna keldi. Múnda ol birqatar yqpaldy týzemdiktermen kenesken son, qabyldanghan qaulylar barynsha naqtylana týsti, atap aitqanda: jerge ornalastyru Orynbor guberniyasy kazaktarynyng jerdi paydalanu ýlgisi boyynsha belgilengen jәne múnday sheshimning Memlekettik Dumagha músylman fraksiyasy arqyly engizilui súralady.

26 jeltoqsanda Barlybek Syrtanov jergilikti jandarmdyq ofiyserge ózi keldi, músylmandardyn, onyng ishinde Jetisu oblysy qazaqtarynyng kezek kýttirmeytin múqtajdyqtary, olardy qanaghattandyrudyng tәsilderi men qúraldary turaly bayan etti. Ózining týzemdik músylmandardyng atynan kelip otyrghanyn, barlyq mәseleler boyynsha tabandy týrde ashyqtyq, jariyalylyq jaghynda ekenin mәlimdedi.

Sodan song Syrtanov 21 qazanda Vernyi, Pishpek jәne jartylay Kopal, Prjevalisk uezderi qyrghyzdarynyng siyezi ótkenin rastady. Atalghan siyezd Memlekettik Dumany qosa eseptegende barlyq instansiyalarda olardyng atynan talap-tilek bildiruge Syrtanovqa ókilettik beru jóninde qauly qabyldaghan. Eger mýmkindik bolsa, JOGhARY MÁRTEBELI IMPERATORDAN qazaqtardy jerge ornalastyru jәne otyryqshy ómir ýshin qolayly jerlerdi qonys audarushylardyng tartyp, basyp alularyn toqtatu súralady; qazirgi uaqytta Jetisu músylmandardyng talap-tilekteri kelesi tórt basty tarmaqqa toghysady: 1) jerge ornalastyru; 2) jalpy bilim beru; 3 sottyq jәne 4) ruhany ister. Búl rette halyqqa qanday da bir panislamistik tendensiyalar mýlde jat siyaqty, Syrtanov ýshin aqsha jinalmaghan, biraq Áskery Gubernator tarapynan qarsylyq bolmasa, múnday sharalar atqaryluy mýmkin.

Jogharyda aitylghandardy mәlim ete otyryp, Joghary mәrtebeli myrza Sizden tiyisti sharalar qabyldaudy ótinip súraymyn».

Arada apta ótpesten, sol jyldyng 31 nauryzynda Krivosheyn atalmysh hatty Qonys audarushylar jónindegi basqarmanyng jerge ornalastyru jәne jerdi iygeru bas basqarushysy Samsonovqa joldaghan. Ol óz qatynas hatynda Ishki ister ministri joldas Shtalimayster Kurlovtyng mәlimdemesin algha tarta otyryp, jogharyda atalghan hattyng mazmúnyn tolyqtay keltiredi de, sóz sonynda: «Joghary mәrtebeli myrza, Jetisu qazaqtary ómirindegi qazirgi qauipti jaghdayda Jetisu әkimshiligining ózinizge baghynyshty sheneunikterine qonys audarushylar partiyalarynyng qiyndyqty isterine yqpal etudi tapsyrsanyz, sonday-aq olardyng qazaqtargha qonys audaru uchaskelerin úiymdastyru jónindegi júmystar qatang týrde zangha sәikes jýrgizilip jatqanyn, júmystar qanday jaghdayda da toqtatylmaytynyn, otyryqshy qúrylymdy qalaytyn qazaqtar qanday da bir erekshe negizde emes, ólkege ornalasyp jatqan orys qonys audarushylarymen teng dәreje jer ala alatyndyqtaryn týsindiruin súrasanyz» dep jazady.

B.Syrttanovtyng esimi osy mәselege qatysty taghy basqa da mәlimdemelerde úshyrasady. Aytalyq, 1912 jyldyng 24 qarashasynda Ishki ister ministri V.A.Suhomlinovtyng atyna jazylghan, N.Zolotarev degen sheneunik qol qoyghan, Bas shtabtyng Aziya bóligining is jýrgizushisi rastaghan hatta mynaday joldar bar:

«Tatar kópesi Abdulqúdys Ghabdulvaliyevting ýiin tintu boyynsha alynghan hat almasular qazaq Syrtanovtyng Jetisu qazaqtarynyng senimdi ókili retindegi Peterburgke sapary tek jerge múqtajdyqty bildiru ghana emes, sonday-aq basqa da maqsattardy kózdegenin bildiredi. Degenmen Dumalyq músylman fraksiyalarynyng kómegimen basqa oblystardyng músylmandarymen jogharyda sóz bolghan ortaq maqsattar boyynsha birigu jónindegi talaby iske aspaghan».

Týrkistan General-Gubernatory N.P. Mihnevichke jogharyda aty atalghan A.Samsonov 1913 jyldyng 30 mamyrynda joldaghan hatta da negizinen jerge qonystandyru, osyghan qatysty jergilikti halyq tarapynan bolyp jatqan qarsylyqtar, arandatushylyqtar keninen sóz bolady. Múnda da osy isting basy-qasynda jýrgen, «Qara shekpendiler kýnnen kýnge bizding jerimizge qonystanuda, halimiz auyrlap barady, kýn kóru qiyngha soghyp túr, jaqsy jerding bәri qonys audarushylardyng menshigine ótti, ata júrtynan aiyrylghan bayghús qazaq taqyr jerge quyldy. Kelimsekterdi toqtatu ýshin býtin qazaq bolyp bas qosu qajet» dep kópke týrtki, úiytqy bolyp jýrgen B.Syrtanov esimi atalady.

El ishi narazylyqqa toly. Júrt jappay bas kóterip jatyr. Osyny anyq sezingen orys ókimeti endigi jerde búrynghyday bәrin belden basa bermey, jergilikti halyqpen de eseptesu kerek ekenine de nazar audara bastaghan. Orys sheneunikterining osynday kónil kýii biz keltirip otyrghan tórt qújattan da bayqalady.

Bir ókinishtisi, B.Syrtanov qapastaghy qalyng elining Alash úranyn kóterip, últ bolyp kýres jolyna týskenin tolyq kórip ýlgermey, 1914 jyldyng 26 qarashasynda mezgilsiz qaytys bolady. Ólimi júmbaq... Qapal qalasynyn  manyna jerlenedi.

B. Syrtanovtyng eli ýshin sinirgen enbegi kózining tirisinde-aq óz baghasyn alyp ýlgergen. Sol orayda biz de B.Syrtanov jayyndaghy býgingi qysqa tolghamdy zamandasy Baqyt­jan Qarataevtyng oghan jazghan bir hatyndaghy myna bir sózben týiindegimiz keledi: «Meninshe, jalghyz sen ghana halyqtyng senimine ie boldyn. Jalghyz sening ghana «halyq ýshin enbek ettim» dep aitugha qaqyng bar!»

Núrlan Dulatbekov

Abai.kz

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