Seysenbi, 11 Mamyr 2021
Tarih 9295 68 pikir 6 Qarasha, 2019 saghat 11:25

Qazaqstan men Sibirding kóne qalalaryn orystar salghan joq

Qazir orys әlemining ghalamtoryn ashyp qalsang boldy: «Jabayy qazaqtardy biz adam qylghanbyz» degen mәlimdemeler órip jýredi. Orys tildi qazaqtar «Qazaq pen týrki tarihyna» qatysty maqala jariyalay qalsa boldy, «biz qazaqqa qala salyp bergenbiz, biz qazaqty adam qylghanbyz» degen dalbasa imperiyalyq ambisiyagha toly komentariylerding beriluine jii kezigemiz. Nege??

Qazaq pen Sibir qalalary sóz bolatyn europalyq Marko Polo, Snorry Sturlusson, Sigizmund Gerbershteyn, Miylesku Spafariy, Nikolay Vitsen; arab-parsylyq Tahirak Marvazi, Salam at-Tardjuman, Ibn Hordadbeh, Rashiyd-ad-Diyn, Abul-Gazy jәne qytaylyq Chan Chuni enbekteri tolyqtay qazaqshalanbay otyr. Ári qolda bar oryssha audarmasy búrmalanyp tәrjimalanghan. Kóbining enbegining atyn estigenimiz bolmasa, ne qazaqshagha, ne orysshagha esh audarylmaghan dýniyeler.

Kim kimge qala salyp berdi? Búrynnan bar qalalardyng irge kótergeni Nege tek orys otarlaushylary basa kóktegen XVI-XVII ghasyrlargha telinip otyr?  Biz tek óz ana tili men orys tilinde jazatyn «Altyn Orda» múragerleri qazaq-tatar zertteushilerine ghana den qoymay, adal oily, jýregi izgi reseylik tarihshylardyng da «Ortaq tarihymyzgha» oray jasaghan ghylymy mәlimdeuleri men imperiyalyq órkókirektikpen búra tartpaytyn ghylymy janalyqtaryna da den qoyghanymyz oryndy. 

Dәl qazir orystyng resmy tarihynda – «Sibirdi jaulap aldy-mys» deytin, qazaqtyng resmy tarihynda – «Bizdi qyryp-joydy-mys» deytin Ermak bar. Al, balama tarihta, Vatikanda saqtalghan jazbalarda eshkimmen soghyspaghan  nestorian dinining songhy patriarhy (azan shaqyryp qoyghan aty: kóne týrkishe «Qúdaydyng Izgi Jazbasynyng múrageri» degen úghymdy bildiretin) Kerey taypasynan shyqqan Jarmaq bar. Ermak Sibirdi jaulap alu joryghynda óz jolynda iri qalany keziktirmese de, onyng әskeri basyp ótken shaghyn qalashyqtar jetip artylatyn. Ári Obi ózeni boyynda shóp basqan, nulana ósken aghash tasalaghan eski qalalardyng orny otarlaushylargha óte jii kezigetin.

Altyn Ordalyq býtkil týrkilik qalalyq múrany yjahattyqpen mórlegen Kәrli Ivannyng «Ýlken syzbasynan» bastau alatyn barsha jazba búlaq kózi taskerendene jabylyp, Resey Imperiyasyn «Norman teoriyasymen» baylanystyrghan Lomonosovtyng ata jauy Gerhard Fridrih Millerding (nem. Gerhard Friedrich Müller) 3 tomdyq «Sibir tarihy» atty mýlәiim enbegi qazaqqa da qatysy bar týrkilik josyq pen iz-tanbany mýldem óshirdi. Ári iyzeuitterding aralasuymen ómirge kelgen tarihy ótirikterine TMD tarihshylaryn ilandyrdy. Osy óshirilu tarihta bolghan qalalardyng búryn bolmaghandyghynan bastau alady. Resey otarshylary irge tepken shaqta Ibir-Sibir jәne Altay ónirindegi Barnaul, Tomsk, Aqmola, Semey, Óskemen, Qostanay, Qyzyljar t.b. Reseylik jәne Qazaqstandyq qalalar búrynnan bar shaharlardyng ornyna salynyp,  saqtalynyp qalghan tarihy jәdigerler qasaqana qiratylyp, atalghan shәrlerding ejelgi tarihyn úmyttyrdy.

Sizge Ibir-Sibirdegi jәne de onymen shektesetin alash júrty aumaghyndaghy: Ika, Kikas, Kambalyk, Grustina, Serpenov, Kanunion, Kossiyn, Terom syndy qalalardyng jarym-jartylay týrkishe әm oryssha ataluy, ne bolmasa, Kary-Sayram, Qaraqorym (Sarkuniy), Alafhin (Alakchiyn), Kemidjket, Hakan Hirhir dep jalghasyp kete beretin shaharlar atauy birdene sezdire me? IYә, búnday halyqtyq sanada bar, ghylymy sanatta joq qalalar men kentter sany on myngha jetpese de mynnan asady. Biz sanamalaghan qalalardyng bәri Ibir-Sibir men Altay aimaghyna tiyseli. Olardyng barlyghy búryndary arab-parsy, qytay, europalyq tarihy qújattarmen qatalyp, býginderi ras-ótirigi arheologiyalyq qazbalar arqyly mәshhýrlenip otyr. Degenmen osy ónirlerdegi kóne qalalar ornyna әli kýnge deyin Resey tarapynan jýieli arheologiyalyq qazbalar jýrgizilmey keledi. Jýrgizip keregi ne? Barlyq qalany jabayy kóshpelilerge bashqúrttar men qazaqtargha, altaylyqtargha әm az sandy ózge týrki halyqtaryna orystar salyp berdi emes pe?

Osylaysha ghylymy әlem jalghan Sibir tarihynyng atasy Gerhard Friedrich Müller-din: «Sibirding esh tarihy qúndylyghy joq, sondyqtan ony zerttep opa tappaymyz» dep mәlimdeuine imanday úiydy. Áli de úiyp keledi. «Sibirde orystar kelgenge deyin qala da, mәdeniyet te bolmaghan anda-sanda qazaq pen bashqúrt siyaqty kóshpeli júrt ondy-soldy kóship-qonyp jýretin bos jatqan aimaq» degen týsinik júrttyng sanasyn ulandyruda. 

Osylay aituyn aityp qalsa da, Sibir tarihynyng atasy ózining «Sibir tarihynda» jәne Tobyl provinsiyasynyng Kuznes ýiezining tynys-tirshiligine arnalghan 1734 jylghy ghylymy enbeginde adamdar este joq eski zamannan beri túryp kele jatqan tarihta bolghany esh dau-damay tudyrmaytyn birneshe qalalardyng ataularyn keltiredi.

1734 jyly G. F. Miller (Gerhard Friedrich Müller ) 1616 jyldan bastap Jonghar imperiyasy qarauyna ótip, oirattar týrkilik mәdeny eskertkishterdi buddalandyrghan, al babalarymyz 1660-1670 jyldary oryn alghan soghysta elu jyl búryn salghan búthanalardy qiratqan shayqas bolyp ótken Dorjinkitte (Sordjiynkiyd), yaghny Semeyde bolyp, qalanyng jeti shatyryn, pút tastardy kózimen kóredi.  Osy on jyldyq soghystan keyin qalany qayta ózine qaratqan oirattar 1672 jyly Uchurtu Han Kiyd hramyn, 1676 – Boshoktu Han Kiyd hramyn saldy. 1717 jyldary býtindey Resey imperiyasy qarauyna kóshken qalany otarlaushylar Semipalatinsk dep atay saldy. 

Altyn Ordagha baghynyshty bolghan Kәrli Ivannyng Pәrmenimen 1552 jyly qazir «orys jeri» dep atalatyn  barsha Deshti-Qypshaq ónirinin shaharlary engizilgen «Ýlken syzba» qúrastyrylghanyn bәrimiz bilemiz. Naghyz karta keyin iz-ghayym joghalyp, tek oghan engen qalalardyng ataulary ghana saqtalyp qaldy. Saqtalyp qalghan qoljazba «Ýlken Syzbanyng Kitaby» dep atalady. Osy bir kezinde bastap jazylghanymen ayaqtalmay qalghan qoljazbany imperiyalyq memlekettik qyzmetkerler (diyaktar) Lihachyov pen Danilov 1627 jyly jazyp bitirdi. Onda tek qana Sibirding soltýstik-batysyndaghy jýzden asa qala ataulary sóz bolady. 

Jergilikti tarihshylar men ólketanushylar resmy tarihpen kelispey óz zertteulerin jeke qarjysymen jalghastyryp keledi. Tomsk qalasynda túratyn tarihshy Georgiy Sidorov: «Boris patshanyng Pәrmenimen 1604 jyly irgesi qalandy delinetin Tomsk qalasynyng ornynda on myng jyl búryn da shahar bolghan.  Men úiymdastyrghan ekspedisiya birtalay artefaktiler taba aldy. Biz salmaghy 4 tonnalyq alyp bloktardy úshyrastyrdyq. Búdan shygharyp aitarym: adamzattyng ósip-órbigen jana oshaghy turaly teoriya zattay jәdiger derektermen bekemdelip otyr» dep mәlimdeme de jasady. Bir әttegen-ayy olardyng basym kópshiligi barsha tarihty grek kóne deregindegi Asgarde Iriysk astanasy bolghan Giyperborey elin «Slavyan-Ariy» degen mistifikasiyamen úshtastyrady. Azshylyq bolsa Sibirdi últtyq negizde qazaq-tatar-bashqút dep bóle-jarmay «Ýlken Tartariya» degen týrkilik  ústanymdaghy uәjdi qúp kóredi.  

Sibir jerin egjey-tegjeyli zerttegen ghalymdar әueli býkil әlemdi airan-asyr etken Arkaimdy tapty. Olardyng izin ala zertteu jýrgizgender býgingi kýni qirandy men ýiindige ainalghan kóptegen eldi meken kent orny men shaharlardyng iz-silemderin tauyp otyrghan jayy bar.  

Ekaterinburgtik zertteushi V.A.Borzunov kenes tarihshylarynyng enbekterin zerttey kele: Oral boyy, Batys Sibir, sonymen qatar Tomsk-Narym Priobiesi aumaghyndaghy tayga bóliginde ornalasqan ejelgi qonys mekenderding naqty oryndaryn anyqtap shyqty.  Iri alany 600 sharshy metr, ortasha alany 270 sharshy metr bolatyn 5 myng jyldyq tarihy bar 70-ten asa ghimarattardyng ornyn tapty.

«Otyryqshy anshylardyng túraghy bolghan búl ónirlerde aghashtan eki qabatty ýiler salynghan, atap aitsaq, bizding dәuirimizge deyingi IV - III myng jyldyqta Obi ózenine qúyatyn Kazym boyynda Amnya I qalashyghy boy kótergen» dep mәlimdeydi Borzunov. 

V. I. Matushenko tynymsyz izdenisi arqyly 1954 jyly Tomsk oblysynyng Samusi kentinde b.d.d. 17-13 ghasyrlargha jatatyn adamdardyng eng kóne meken túraghy tabylyp, Samus mәdeniyeti dep ataldy.  Búl mәdeniyette ózining tútynghan búiymdary men enbek qúraldary boyynsha Oral boyy, Kama ózeni, Permi ónirindegi Turbin mәdeniyetine úqsaydy. 

Ghalymdar osydan shygharyp, qola ghasyrynda týrki tekti Shyghys Europa men Batys Sibirde birtútas samus – turbin – seymiyn tútasqan mәdeniyeti bolghan degen qorytyndy shyghardy. Tom oblysynyng irge tasy 1954 jyly qalanghan Seversk qalasynda tabylghan zilding (mamont) tisinde eki órkeshti týie men qasiyetti kereit tanbasy (svastika) bederlengen bizding dәuirimizge deyingi 20 myng jyldyqqa jatatyn jәdiger tabyldy. Al, týie ózderiniz bilesizder Sibirlik januar emes.

Dәl qazir Resey men Qazaqstangha ortaq búrynghy qazaq ózenderi Tobyl men Esil boyyndaghy qysh kirpishten túrghyzylghan qala men kent izderi tabylyp otyr. Osy baghyttaghy zertteushilik júmysqa  V.T. Kovaleva (yrovskaya) jetekshilik etken ekaterinburgtik ghylymy top b.d.d. III-II jyldyqtaghy aghash qabyrghaly dóngelek pishindi ghimarattardy tapty. Nәtiyjesinde Tobyldyng eki jaghalauyna tap osynday 4 túraq barlyghy anyqtaldy.

Orta ghasyrdaghy qazaq jerin basyp ótken arab-parsy sayahtashylarynyng jazba derekterine sýiener bolsaq, 842-847 jj. aralyghynda Sibir men Qazaqstan jerinde bolghan arab Sallam at-Tardjuman óz joljazba kýndeliginde 20 kýn boyghy jýrip ótken jerlerinde jartylay búzylghan kóne qalalardy úshyrastyrghanyn egjey-tegjey jazady. Búl jayynda jergilikti anshylardan súraghanynda olar osy qalardyng bәrin «yadjudj jәne madjudj» taypalary tas-talqan etti dep jauap beredi. Tap osy «Qalalar elin» IX – XIV ghasyrlarda basqada sayahatshylar men saudagerler kórip, «Qúlazyghan ónir» dep atady. «Ýlken Syzbanyng Kitabynda» búl jerlerde qara shaqpaq tasty terezeli ýlken tas ýiler bolghan dep sipattalady. Ári túrghyndarynyng metall men qysh búiymdaryn tútynghany, sonday-aq  diyirmen tasyn paydalanghany sóz etiledi.

Ótken ghasyrdyng qyrqynshy jyldary hakas astanasy Abakandaghy L. Evtuhov basshylyq etetin muzey qyzmetkerleri ghimarat aulasynan b.d.d. 98 jyldargha jatatyn irgetas pen saraydyng bir qabyrghasyn tapty. Búl ashylym Tashebin sarayy degen ataudy iyelendi. Qysh shatyrly 20 bólmeli saray bir kezdegi iri qalanyng qaq ortasyna ornalasqandyghy anyqtaldy. Keybir zertteushiler ony jerlesteri týrki tekti qytay әuletining әsker basshysy bolghan Ly Liinge arnap salghan degen joramal aitady.

Ertis boyynda qazirgi Pavlodar qalasynyng orynda Orda qalasy ornalasqanyn europalyq Snorry Sturlusson, Sigizmund Gerbershteyn, Miylesku Spafariy, Nikolay Vitsender jazyp qaldyrdy. Olar salghan kartada Qimaqtardyng Orda qalasy dәl qazirgi Kerekuding orynda ornalasqan. VIII-IX ghasyrdaghy taghy bir arab sayahatshysy Tamim ibn Bahr Mutavva'y ózining әueli Ertis boyyndaghy Qimaq qaghandarynyng ordasynda bolghanyn, keyin Tarazdan shyghyp, 12 әidik temir qaqpaly adamdary qújynaghan iri bazary bar ýlken bir shaharda bolghandyghyn. Álgi qalanyng manyndaghy júrt eginshilikpen ainalasatyndyghyn sóz etedi. Búl әriyne – Orda qazirgi Pavlodar, biraq Taraz qay Taraz degen súraq ta tuyndaydy?

Elshi әri sayahatshy Tamim ibn Bahr Mutavva'y Altaydaghy Zaysan kólining boyynan qiraghan qalanyng oryn kórgenin jazyp qaldyrady. Búl jerde babalarymyz altyn qorytatyn kenderge iyelik etip, әshkey búiymdaryn  grek otarlaryna satqandyghyn Gumbolidt pen Chihachev syndy zertteushiler joqqa shygharmaydy.

IYә, Altaydaghy jergilikti sheberler altynnan kózding jauyn alatyn nebir búiymdarymen ejelgi orta ghasyrdaghy Europany tang qaldyra bildi. Orystar saldy-mys deytin qalalar óz oryndarynda búrynnan bar edi. Otarshylar qazynadan bir tiyn shygharmay, eski qalalardyng qirandysyn túrghyn ýige ainaldyryp, janasha atay saldy. Mysaly: 1618 jyly eski qalanyng mahalalary oryna Kuznesk degen jana qala boy kóterdi. Tap osynday jaghdayat Sibirdegi birinshi orys qalasy sanalatyn Tumeni (1586), Tomsk (1604), Semipalatinsk (1717), Omsk (1716), Barnaul (1734) syndy qala oryndaryna orys basqynshylary irge tepkende oryn aldy. 1604 jyly qiraghan eski shәri oryna salynghan Tomsk qalasy 50 jyldan keyin túrugha mýldem jaramay, 1648 jyly basqa jerge salynyp, búrynghy mәdeny jәdigerlerimiz irgetasqa ainalyp ketti. 

Bir ókinshtisi osy qalalar keneygen shaqta talay kóne ghimarattar men jәdigerler jana salynghan ýilerding astynda qala berdi.  Noghaysibirde (Novosibirsk) Mәskeu patshalyghy men Kóshim han arasyndaghy 16 jylgha sozylghan soghystyng 1589 jylghy 22 mausymda bolghan songhy shayqasy oryn alghan Sattyrt (Chaty) qorghany metropoliyten beketinning astynda qala berdi. Búnday mysaldar jetip artylady.

Bertinde 1999 jyly taghy osy qalanyng arheologtary Chicha kólining boyynan b.d.d VIII-VII ghasyrlargha jatatyn  qalanyng oryn tapty. Osy aimaqtyng Qazaq elimen shektesetin jerinde aumaghy 5-ten 30 gektargha deyin aumaqty alatyn birneshge eldi mekenning orny tabyldy. Olardyng kóbining aty tarihta Tartas syndy qazaqsha ataumen qalyp otyr.

Sonda resmy orys tarihynyng Sibirdi iygerui (basyp aluy) barysynda búrynnan bar «Sibirlik qalalardy biz saldyq deytin?» aksiomalanghan  qiytúrqy sayasatyna qashan ghylymi-iydeologiyalyq tosqauyl qoyylady!?

Ábil-Serik Áliakbar

Abai.kz

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